Inventors work to design and make some new device or substance, or, to discover some new process. Ideally, these self-directed creators secure a patent and are able to get commercial production and usage started. Basic scientists work to discover new truth, test a hypothesis, or disprove an accepted false truth. They do this by conducting experiments, so as to investigate various research questions and to test specific proposals (e.g., about cause and effect). Commercial products can follow basic discoveries only through further studies and much work by others in applied research and engineering. Applied scientists and engineers seek to change the properties or improve the performance of some known model device or existing commercial product.
Certain inventors also are scientists, and some scientists also are inventors. Both make discoveries, tend to be very creative, and can have major effects on their fellow humans. In general, almost all modern scientists have earned a doctoral degree, but many inventors are ordinary people who have not acquired an advanced academic diploma. Scientists generally work in a laboratory or out in the field, while inventors often work in their basement, attic, or garage. Scientists often seek in-depth knowledge and can have wide professional interests, while inventors usually are highly focused on knowledge only in the small area involving their invention(s). Today, scientists most often are employees receiving a paycheck (i.e., from companies or universities); inventors often toil on their own time while being paid for some regular job; inventors usually receive no money until their invention advances to attract cosponsors or to initiate commercial development and production.
By tradition, both inventors and scientists often have vigorous curiosity and a driving determination. Both inventors and scientists can be highly individualistic people with flamboyant personalities; inventors especially often encounter remarkable adventures with their work activities. Inventors of exceptional caliber always are controversial and do not come forth very often. Probably the most famous inventor in history of the USA is Thomas A. Edison (1847 – 1931) [1-3]; he is frequently recognized for re-inventing or vastly improving the incandescent light bulb; discovering the phonograph (sound recorder and player); inventing the kinetograph (cinematographic recorder), kinetoscope (cinema viewer and projector), and a simple cylindrical voice recorder (for dictation); constructing an urban electrical generation and distribution system; and, inventing an improved electrical storage battery. Edison received his first patent in 1868, for an electronic vote counter intended to be used in a state legislature; by his death at age 84, he had acquired the phenomenal total of 1,093 patents [1-3]. In addition to being both an inventor and a scientific researcher, Edison also was a vigorous industrialist; he founded a small manufacturing company that now has grown into the industrial giant, General Electric. Edison had factory facilities built adjacent to his extensive research center and large private home/estate in West Orange, New Jersey; the laboratory and house are part of the Thomas Edison National Historic Park, and both can be very enjoyably visited in person . It is remarkable to note that Edison was been home- and self-schooled. Thomas Edison is remembered today as simultaneously being a life-long inventor, a scientist, an engineer, and an industrialist.
Another immensely creative inventor and visionary scientist was Nikola Tesla (1856 -1943) [5,6]. Born in what is now Croatia and educated in Europe, the young Tesla moved to New York where he worked directly with Thomas Edison. Tesla’s brilliance in designing and improving electrical circuits and devices was evident with his invention of a small motor that could successfully utilize alternating current (AC), which he also invented; Edison and others had developed and forcefully promoted the use of direct current (DC) for electrical power generation and distribution in the USA, but AC later proved to be much better for practical use. Tesla probably was the true inventor of radio, and, might have been the discover of x-rays [5,6]. He also designed and built circuits and special apparatus for radio and television transmissions, recorded one of the first x-ray images of a human hand, designed and invented fluorescent light bulbs as a new type of electric lamp, and, experimented with the progenitors of radar, diathermy machines, and automobile ignition coils [5,6]. Tesla utilized ozone to make water potable. In 1960, the standard scientific unit of magnetic flux was designated as “the Tesla” in his honor. Despite the extravagent Hollywood version of Nikola Tesla as the primordial “mad scientist”, he now is widely recognized and acclaimed as a visionary throughout the world; he now is seen as having been an amazingly creative and constructive inventor, as well as a determined researcher and explorer in electrical engineering [5,6].
 Beals, G., 1999. The biography of Thomas Edison. Available on the internet at: http://www.thomasedison.com/biography.html .
 Bedi, J., The Lemelson Center, Smithsonian National Museum of American History, 2013. Edison’s story. Available on the internet at: http://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/edison/000_story_02.asp .
 Bellis, M., 2013. The inventions of Thomas Edison. History of phonograph – lightbulb – motion pictures. Available on the internet at: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bledison.htm .
 National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 2013. Thomas Edision National Historical Park. Available on the internet at: http://www.nps.gov/edis/index.htm .
 Serbia SOS, 2013. Available on the internet by first finding Famous Serbs on the display at the following blog, and then clicking on “Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) – Scientist and Inventor, the Genius who Lit the World”, at: http://serbiasos.blogspot.com/p/serbs.html .
 Twenty-First Century Books, 2013. Interesting facts about Nikola Tesla – Table of contents. Available on the internet at: http://www.tfcbooks.com/teslafaq/toc.htm .
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