Monthly Archives: March 2015



What did everyone do before computers, television, and libraries?   (
What did everyone do before computers, television, and libraries?                           (


Libraries are undergoing many large changes due to the rise of digital technology, the ready availability of the internet and of multimedia recordings, and, the changes in modern society.  As the main repositories for information, large libraries have been instrumental for scientific research, other areas of scholarship, and education; they are changing along with the neighborhood libraries in cities and the small libraries in schools.  This essay examines how these changes in science libraries affect research scientists.

Science libraries. 

Science books now are being published both in traditional printed versions and in digital formats.  For science journals, most now are published both in printed form and as digital editions; a number of new professional journals covering scientific research are only digital.  Media play an increasingly important role for science education, research reports, and presentations at science meetings; all of these now are mostly in digital form.  Instead of a book of printed abstracts, scientists attending annual science meetings frequently now receive a portable digitized recording.  Many libraries, including both local public libraries and large scholarly libraries at universities, now contain many digital volumes and digitized materials in their collection. 

This extensive shift into digitized formats means that students and scientists now can: (1) access almost everything traditionally found in libraries without a physical visit; (2) interlibrary loans are increasingly unnecessary; (3) searching for information on personal computers, as compared to spending several days or weeks camped out within a library, seems quick, efficient, and comprehensive; and, (4) even course textbooks now are being sold for use on the personal computers of students.  I believe that many of these changes are good for science and society, but some also have unrecognized side effects (e.g., if anything is stated to be “fully known”, then there is no point to studying it further!). 

What do research scientists need books and libraries for? 

Common uses of library materials by research scientists include: (1) reading or viewing new books, new or old issues of science journals, new documents related to science, new or old science textbooks, and, new media, and, (2) searching for answers to certain questions, historic materials, published opinions and pronoucements about science, deposited research data, or, presentations at science meetings.  Although almost all of these retrievals now can be accompished via the internet, some care is needed to ensure that such searches truly are extensive, complete, highly detailed, and include all related topics. 

Most scientists and almost all students now rarely or never visit a library!  Scientists doing research in universities, industries, hospitals, and technology institutes find the internet much easier to use from their office or residence.  Internet search engines quickly display numerous websites in response to any search on a browser.  Absolutely everything that a scientist could need soon will be readily available on the internet.  Except for very special science libraries containing collections of rare and ancient materials, science libraries now are underutilized and increasingly seem unnecessary; since maintaining traditional libraries necessitates spending quite a lot of money every year, it is easy to predict that they will be converted into much less costly fully digitized libraries. 

Why are internet searches about science often incomplete or superficial? 

Internet search engines operate mechanically, unlike the human mind.  Although searching on the internet is quite rapid, the information retrieved often can be limited in scope, one-sided or biased, and, includes only limited and highly-selected details.  There are accounts that some internet materials have been truncated or express quite tilted views.  If any data, materials, statements, or divergent opinions are not displayed, then the results of an internet search are incomplete; many persons using an internet search engine usually are not aware of those limitations.  Living scientists are much better able than search engines to interrelate separate items and topics, judge relevancy, create a sequence of connected operations, and, proceed logically into new directions. 

To state this in a different way, searching with search engines is not the same as doing research.  In the good old days, searching in a library to find needed materials resembled going on a treasure hunt; different hunters even could find different treasures!  Many youngsters and college students today believe that a classroom assignment to “do research” about something means to use a search engine on the internet.  That mistaken viewpoint undoubtedly reflects the general lack of understanding about what is research and what scientists and other scholars do (see:  “What Do University Scientists really Do in Their Daily Work?” ).  For scientists, the internet is a very useful tool for research, but is best seen as only part of a longer and more complex mental activity. 

Looking at the future of books and libraries. 

Things are changing in libraries so quickly that it is now possible to visualize what will happen to them in the near future.  The number of science libraries will decrease dramatically as most materials on science are moved into “The Cloud”.  Library functions then will be taken over by special national or regional websites providing access to very large databases of digitized materials.  These truly gigantic collections will be designated as digital megalibraries, and are based upon a super-database that combines several other huge databases. 

In answer to emotional outcries that old and antique printed books are still good and useful, a worldwide effort will be undertaken to create digitized versions of the entirety of all previously published volumes.  Practical problems with the numerous different languages in our world will be remedied by new software programs that rapidly translate anything published or audio-recorded into whatever language is needed.  When all of these predicted developments happen, scientists and everyone else will have access to everything on their personal computer! 

For research scientists, these changes mostly will be good, although the information available might at first seem overwhelming.  New strategies for dealing with this glut of retrieved information will be invented and developed.  This galaxy of total information also will stimulate new commercial software that objectively lists new and old publications that are important for any science topic or research question.  Reviewers of manuscripts, grant applications, educational materials, and books then will use related special new software to ensure that authoring scientists have dealt with all the necessary information.  Research reports will then need to provide a special listing of “non-cited references” in order to keep the actual article readable and its length reasonable. 

Concluding remarks. 

Are science libraries going to vanish?  No, but they will be completely transformed into digitized operations.  The new digital libraries will continue to be vital for science and research.  

Having spent many years looking at dusty old volumes in university libraries and then finding that the one for my particular interest was missing, I believe that the forthcoming availability of absolutely everything in digital form will be welcomed by all scientists and other scholars.  Nevertheless, at a strictly emotional level, a discolored old book with a wonderful smell to it can never be equated to its digitized counterpart! 



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Should Research Scientists be Unionized?    (
Should Research Scientists be Unionized?    (

Unions traditionally are for workers in factories, offices, or the trades (i.e., trade unions), but more recently also are active in many other situations where employees feel they need protection from their employer.  Most scientists working in universities or industrial research and development (R&D) centers presently are not unionized.  However, some university science teachers, workers in science-related jobs, and hospital staff do become unionized.  In recent times, many employers have set up grievance mechanisms in order to try to preclude the need to establish unions as a protection against perceieved or actual workplace abuses.  This essay takes a closer look at the present claims for research scientists to become unionized.


Many scientists working as professional researchers in universities now have major job problems with (1) time management, (2) obtaining sufficient money from governmental grants to support their research, and, (3) demands for dishonesty (see: “Introduction to Cheating and Corruption in Science” ).  These very general problems now cause much job dissatisfaction for university scientists (see:  “Why are University Scientists Increasingly Upset with their Job?  Part I” ).  All 3 large practical problems are due to misguided policies and practices with:  (1) modern universities, (2) the current research grant system, and (3) the commercialization of science (see: “What is the Very Biggest Problem for Science Today?” ). 

For faculty scientists at universities and medical schools, the research time problem bothers everyone greatly, but probably is not yet severe enough to support union-based strikes or job actions.  Different levels of the research money problem are faced by everyone doing laboratory research within universities; although dissatisfaction with this situation is very widespread, official complaints are strongly prevented simply because all grantees want to continue receiving research grant support throughout their careers (i.e., do not bite the hand that feeds you!).  The corruption problem in modern science is ignored by many scientists because they are too busy worrying about their time and money problems, and do not wish to become  involved with investigations and charges that do not directly involve them personally.  Hence, the very largest job problems for scientists in universities do not readily encourage unionization and union-based protests. 

For scientists in industrial laboratories, job problems are less frequent and seem less severe than in academia.  Their problems with time often are solved or at least minimized by gaining administrative approval to hire more support staff.  Any problems with research money frequently are dealt with internally when admninistrators shift job priorities and budgets.  Problems with corruption are less prominent in industrial labs, unless professional researchers are asked to change research results or interpretations of data in order to facilitate business aspects of their employer.  Industries are more on the side of their employees than are universities, and clearly need to promote the performance of their science employees as an important part of their drive for business success; thus, there presently is only a limited need for industrial scientists to seek recourse by unionization. 

Some special situations in science could lead to unionization. 

Certain job situations for today’s professional scientists increasingly recall the historical tradition where groups of ordinary (non-science) workers formed unions to protect themselves from abusive employers.  I will briefly discuss here 3 solid examples of modern instances where efforts with unionization now are either progressing or being considered. 

Postdoctoral Research Fellows typically spend several years doing full-time research before they are able to become good candidates for employment in universities, industrial  R&D centers, or science-related positions (see:  “All About Postdocs, Part I.  What are Postdocs and What Do they Do?” ).  When the number of available new science job positions declines, as in recent years, some Postdocs stay in these positions for at least a decade; although they are pleased to be paid to do research work, they are not truly independent, have minimal job security and limited retirement benefits, and, do not have a career or status appropriate to all their long training and professional research publications.  Postdocs easily can become captive workers.  Hence, these  temporary employees increasingly feel that “The Science System” is abusive and is taking advantage of them.  In response to complaints from Postdocs at many sifferent locations, universities try to make improvements by establishing some administrative post to handle all matters concerning Postdocs.  Little ever changes, so the complaints continue; any good changes are countered by the ready availability of many new foreign Ph.D.s eagerly seeking to come here as Postdoctoral Fellows (see:  “Why Does the United States now have so Very Many Foreign Graduate Students in Science?  Part I ” ).  Recently, some local or regional groups of Postdocs are critically discussing their predicament, and are seeking to develop changes in their present job status; whether this spreading discord will result in unionization of Postdocs remains to be seen. 

University faculty are becoming unionized at some educational institutions, both here in the United States and in some foreign countries.  Several unions and related organizations now deal with educational activities and business matters, but these associations also include numerous non-science faculty.  University faculty usually are reluctant to join a union, but sooner or later come to see that there indeed is strength in numbers.  Faculty unions sometimes elicit good adjustments and improvements in such factors as salary levels, employment benefits, and, issuance of documentation about what is expected from faculty employees.  Union-derived positive changes generally affect all the faculty, rather than only members of the union.  The harsher and more one-sided modern universities become, the more will unionization of their faculty be encouraged. 

Tenure for science faculty is a specific job problem that can be found both at universities and some industrial R&D centers.  Promotion to tenured rank uses somewhat different criteria at each school, and each individual candidate is at least slightly questionable.  Although nationally a subatantial number of scientists is involved with tenure each year, this issue at any one institution concerns only some few individuals; such fragmentation means that unionization of scientists as a means to improve this problem is very difficult.  If anyone compares the situation for tenure decisions at universities having faculty unions versus those that do not have unionized faculty, then it is obvious that the rules and regulations for achieving tenured rank are much more openly stated and carefully followed by the former institutions.  Due to mistakes and abuses with the tenure decision, this complex issue is actively discussed and of ongoing interest to the professional faculty unions. Junior faculty scientists constitute a hidden national class of good potential candidates for modern unionization.  

Are there any alternatives to unions for scientists? 

In my opinion, unions presently only play a minor role for professional scientific researchers.  Since science workers in universities do have serious job problems, one must ask whether there are any other mechanisms available to advance the general job status of faculty scientists.  The answer to this question is “yes”!  Most professional scientists are members of at least one science society.  These national associations sponsor annual meetings (see: “All About ScienceMeetings” ), publish professional journals, organize educational endeavors, and promote the advancement of their discipline.  These organizations often have thousands of dues-paying members, and thus have notable similarities to large unions.  Some of the current issues for professional scientists described above seem very suitable to be addressed by the national science societies. 

Concluding discussion. 

At present, unions are not numerous amongst all the many professional research scientists.  Some of the major job-related issues faced by research scientists at universities are well-suited to be ameliorated by unionization; however, the scientists actively confronting these issues at any one institution are not numerous, and so do not constitute the large number of workers traditionally engaged by unions.  When confronted with seemingly hopeless, unfair, and downright stupid job conditions, scientists are not  being unprofessional when they turn to unions so as to resolve the several difficult job problems in their profession.  Science societies have many features that are strongly analogous to unions, and should be encouraged to start helping their member scientists to better deal with major job-related issues.  



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It’s Not so Easy to Decide Where to Apply for a New Research Grant!! (
It’s Not so Easy to Decide Where to Apply for a New Research Grant!!                       (
Many university researchers wish that new directions and new support programs would be initiated so as to remove or at least decrease the negative aspects of modern university science and of the current research grant system.  This short series of essays puts forth proposals for some really new and different kinds of research grants, as an attempt to insert new ideas for funding mechanisms.  Part I proposed the establishment of a new grant program to specifically support “pilot studies” in all branches of science (see “New Kinds of Research Grants for Science, Part I” ).  Part II now proposes a new research grant mechanism designed to finally resolve some long-standing controversies having big consequences for science and society. 

Giant controversies in science arise despite lots of good research.  Certain research disputes have become so controversial that they are deadlocked.   Traditional grant-supported research only increases the stalemated dispute and does not succeed in resolving the controversy. The federal granting agencies do not seem to recognize that the best answer to these large controversies is to not fund more of the usual limited investigations, but instead to sponsor better research!  Definitive additional experimental data and analysis will permit expert scientists to reach a consensus about what really is known or not known, and what is true or false. 

What causes research controversies to become long-standing?   

Controversies in science are good except when disputes become stalemated and further ordinary research can make little or no progress.  Some disputes involve big disagreements about opposing interpretations of research results.  Others involve directed interpretations of scientific data coming from commercial manufacturers.  Occasionally, the scientists employed by national regulatory agencies are alleged to hide data or purposely misinterpret some test results so as to give a falsely positive evaluation (e.g., U.S. Food and Drug Agency).  A different type of dispute arises when ordinary people personally observe effects and activities that are quite different from the conclusions drawn by research scientists.  Big disputes are not just academic activities, but even can involve public health and safety. 

Some examples of big controversies in current science. 

All very large controversies  are long-standing stalemated disputes, and often have big importance for society and science.  Examples of topics where research conclusions in both basic and applied science currently are widely disputed and very controversial include: (1) glyphosate (e.g., Is widespread use of this commercial chemical in modern agriculture poisoning all of us?), (2) white LED light bulbs (e.g., Do they truly pay for themselves in common household usage versus the cost of modern incandescent light bulbs?), (3) various vaccines (e.g., Do influenza vaccines also cause new flu infections? Do they cause autism or other health problems?), (4) cold fusion (e.g., Is cold fusion possible or not?), (5) post-Fukushima radiocontamination of oceans with uranium derivatives (e.g., Can entire oceans be decontaminated?  How can that be done?  What improved or new measures can reliably prevent any repetitions of a Fukushima-type disaster at nuclear power plants?), and, (6) global warming (e.g., How much do environmental temperatures naturally vary over shorter or longer periods of time?  Have temperatures recently increased more than natural variations?  Have humans and industries caused any increase in prevailing temperatures?).  Research results from all the many previous ordinary scientific studies on these questions have failed to permit a consensus to be reached; therefore, new kinds of research studies are needed in order to specifically break each stalemate and result in a new consensus view being accepted. 

Details about proposed new research grants to resolve big controversies in science. 

I propose a new research grant program to support research studies on very large controversial questions in science.  This new kind of support program aims to finally resolve stalemates in giant controversies, so that basic and applied research then can proceed and progress without being tied down for more decades with endless controversy about the same disputes.  All proposed new projects must be realistically able to fully resolve a giant controversy in 10 or less years of experimental research studies.  Awards will range up to 10 years of support.  Awardees with a 5 year award can apply for one renewal of 5 more years; awardees for 10 years of support cannot be renewed.  

Who can apply?  Applications will be accepted from scientists and engineers holding a doctoral degree, and being employed in universities or industrial research labs.  At least a 50% effort by the Principal Investigator (P.I.) is required.  Both individual scientists and small groups (i.e., up to a maximum of 12 doctoral co-investigators) can apply for research support from this new program. 

Proposals:  Key questions to be answered and criitically evaluated in all proposals are: (1) exactly how can the selected controversy be fully resolved within a 10 year period of work, and, (2) how will the new results obtained cause a consensus to finally be reached?  

Applications must give: (1) detailed description of the experimental data to be collected and analyzed, (2) different conclusions that could arise from full completion of the proposed new studies, and, (3) what will happen when the controversy finally is resolved.  All research facilities to be used must be desribed in detail.  Additionally, all applications must explain: (1) where the P.I. and all co-investigators initially stand with regard to the selected controversy, (2) how the expected new results will be able to finally resolve the controversy, rather than simply leading to further disputes, and, (3) exactly what will be known and what will remain unknown after the new studies are completed.  Applications should carefully justify percentage efforts of all participants, and, explain how the proposed studies relate to research projects supported by current awards to the P.I. and all co-investigators.  

Due to the nature and size of the research questions involved in big controversies, small groups using highly coordinated experiments and bringing a good range of specific expertise to the project will receive preference; however, proposals from especially well-qualified individual investigators also will be welcomed.  The P.I. must have had at least one regular external research grant awarded (on any subject) within the past 6 years.  Applicants can request support funds for all usual kinds of research expenses, except that no funding for purchase of new research equipment is permitted; however, funds can be requested for the required construction of special research instruments enabling production of new data that will resolve the controversy. 

How will proposals be evaluated?  Priority for funding will be evaluated by peer review primarily on the basis of: (1) quality of the planned new experiments and data analysis, (2) likelihood that completion of the proposed definitive studies will be fully completed within a 10-year period of support, and, (3) plans for finally reaching a general consensus amidst the ongoing disputes. 

How will science benefit from resolving giant controversies?  Resolving big controversies will dramatically advance science by helping to invigorate the weak status of experimental research studies in U.S. universities (see:  “Could Science and Research now be Dying?” ).  Resolving a big controversy will: (1) preclude spending more research time and funding that leads nowhere; instead, later research will involve practical applications via new applied research and engineering developments, without distractions from commercial and political interests; and, (2) permit future research studies to be based on the new consensus conclusions, rather than on the same old controversial positions.   After each large controversy is resolved, smaller research questions following from the newly-accepted consensus conclusions can be supported through regular research grant mechanisms.  


Everone should be able to recognize the negative effects of stalemated giant controversies in modern science.  These not only cause wastage of time and money, but result in decreased public esteem for science, research, and scientists.  Resolution of these controversies will finally enable future research studies to investigate new details and specific questions, without being forced to be involved in the former dispute itself; continuing these controversies is pointless.  Science then will be able to free itself from the politics and emotions behind these controversies.  Future productive new research studies in science and engineering will be based upon the new consensus.  After the giant controversies finally are resolved, the progress of today’s science will be improved, and the public will benefit much from new practical advances.  



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It is Not so Easy to Decide Where to Send an Application for a New Science Research Grant!  (

It’s Not so Easy to Decide Where to Submit a New Research Grant!!   (


Almost all scientists agree that the modern research grant system has both good and bad effects upon the science enterprise.  Periodic efforts by the largest granting agencies of the federal government create additional support opportunities for research scientists, but unfortunately these only seem to provide small improvements.  Scientific research costs billions of dollars annually in the United States (U.S.) (see:  “Why is Science so very Expensive?  Why do Research Experiments Cost so Much?”); financial support comes from government agencies (via taxpayers) and from industrial companies.  Background materials about the multibillion-dollars in research support funds currently awarded by the largest agencies are readily available on the internet for the National Science Foundation (NSF) (see:  “About the National Science Foundation” ) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (see:  “About National Institutes of Health” ).

Many university researchers wish that new directions and new support programs would be initiated so as to remove or decrease the negative aspects of the current research grant system.  This short series of essays puts forth proposals for some really new and different kinds of research grants, as an attempt to insert some new ideas for funding mechanisms.  The proposed initiatives will help invigorate the decayed status of experimental research studies in U.S. universities (see:  “Could Science and Research now be Dying?” ).  My proposals will function nicely within the present research grant system. 

What are Pilot Studies, and Why are they Important?

Pilot studies are short-term experimental research efforts seeking to find which subjects, approaches, and methods are best suited to produce good results for a possible new research investigation.  Ideally, these initial studies result in identification of which designs for experiments will work, what experimental subjects can be used effectively, which research questions or hypotheses can be answered or tested by the proposed experiments, and what types of results will be obtained.  Pilot studies produce preliminary results confirming that a planned approach actually will answer a research question. 

Only a limited time and effort usually can be expended on evaluating and devloping a potential new research project.  In modern universities, pilot studies now often are: (1) conducted as minor side efforts during the investigations funded by a research grant,  (2) assigned to a graduate student or a research technician, or, (3) done during a sabbatical leave.   Pilot studies are important because they show how raw theoretical ideas can be converted into practical reality (i.e., sometimes a very clever idea just will not work in the research laboratory). 

The current research grant system requires preliminary data for all applications, but unofficially discourages pilot studies.  The grant system seeks solid new knowledge based on known approaches and building on already accomplished research results; this goal is inherently different from the exploratory nature of pilot studies.  Although most pilot studies are more or less supported by current research grant award(s), there is not much room in funded research projects for really creative experimentation, trying out unconventional new ideas, or starting new work in some different area of science; pilot studies focus on exactly these aspects of research, and are much less restricted than ongoing regular studies.  Additionally, use of research grant funds to conduct pilot studies is extremely difficult for the increasing number of good scientists now receiving awards with only partial funding.   

The hidden value of pilot studies for science is that they often are individual expressions of creative and innovative ideas.  Once a research grant is awarded, most activities are set in place and scheduled, with little necessity to think any new thoughts.  Most scientists in universities stick to what they can get funded readily, and rarely switch projects or start work in other fields of science.  Pilot studies often include creative designs, new approaches, and very innovative ideas.  Hence, the most important role of pilot studies for science is that they stimulate new thoughts, new questions, and new experiments.  Thus, pilot studies represent initial inputs of new ideas into science. 

Support for pilot studies at present.  

Current mechanisms for obtaining the necessary funds to conduct pilot studies are too limited.  I have not found any general supportive  programs at the NSF or NIH that fund only pilot study research.  Actual lab work in pilot studies more frequently is a short subsidiary effort funded by an ongoing research grant; there is little push to conduct creative or unconventional studies with really new research questions and ideas.   Some science organizations do make awards for pilot studies, and some medical schools do have special programs internally supporting pilot studies for their faculty researchers.  

The only other general funding source for pilot studies appears to be crowdfunding.  This new type of public-supported and -donated funding usually features limited amounts of money and time, but that is exactly what is needed for pilot research.  Most applicants already have a well-equipped research lab.  However, the chief problem with crowdfunding is that the general public often cannot readily comprehend what is involved in pilot studies and how that is used by science; therefore, proposals by scientists to support new pilot studies cannot readily compete with proposals for conducting creative projects in the arts.  Accordingly, grant support for pilot studies is quite limited, and a new kind of support program for pilot studies now is needed!  

Details of the proposed new research grants for pilot studies.

I propose a new type of research grant, dedicated to enabling the conduct of more new pilot studies.  This new award program will support worthy pilot studies at universities for a duration of 1-4 months.   At least a 25-50% effort by the Principal Investigator (P.I.) is required.  No expenses for salary of the P.I. and no indirect costs will be supported.  Direct costs for supplies, lab personnel, and research travel (e.g., to conduct studies at an off-campus location) will be supported.  All awards are limited to a maximum total of $40,000.  Successful outcome to a pilot study supported by this new granting program is expected to lead to a new proposal for funding by a regular research grant mechanism. 

Who can apply?  Applications for pilot study grants can be submitted by any scientist or engineer with a doctoral degree, and having access to adequate laboratory space and instrumentation facilities.  Applicants holding a faculty status are preferred.  Graduate students and Postdocs cannot apply for these grants.  Any individual scientist can have only one pilot study award for any calendar year. 

Proposals:  Applications for new pilot studies can involve any area of modern science.  Proposals must fully describe the new experimental investigations to be conducted, examine all possible results, explain what research project could follow if the pilot studies are successful, and, give reasons how and why both this pilot study and the anticipated subsequent research work are important for science and society.  Available research facilities to be used must be described in detail.  All anticipated costs must be justified.  Pilot study grants are not supplements to currently awarded research grants; applications must make clear how the proposed pilot study relates to any and all current awards.   This new granting program has no renewals.  Awards can permit new pilot studies by science faculty currently without a research grant, or, by those wishing to begin research on a new and different subject or branch of acience.  Proposals with innovative and unconventional new approaches are welcomed. 

How will proposaals be evaluated?  Priority for funding will be evaluated by peer review on the primary basis of: (1) quality of the planned new experiments, (2) likelihood that completion of the proposed pilot study will result in submission of a new meritorious research grant application, and (3) potential contributions to the progress of science. 

How will science benefit from new grants for pilot studies?  The proposed new granting program will provide funds that: (1) increase the number of pilot studies being conducted, (2) enable preliminary studies to be made where simultaneous regular grant awards do not provide sufficient “extra funds” for pilot studies, and (3) provide opportunities for established university scientists to switch their research into new subjects or new areas of science.  This new kind of research grant will increase creative research ideas and investigations, enlarge the scope of innovative research activities at universities, and, encourage new ventures in scientific research by professional scientists and engineers. 


There still are too many barriers to making important new research discoveries and advances.  In my opinion, the biggest problem in modern laboratory science is not  insufficient support money, but that there are restrictions for developing new ideas, thinking new thoughts about research,  using new designs for experiments, and, devising unconventional approaches to solve difficult or controversial research questions.  The new grants for pilot studies will be instrumental in overcoming some current restrictions limiting the progress of scientific research.  If support is given to pilot studies that investigate controversies, use creative designs with unconventional approaches, and start or switch research work onto very new projects, then significant research advances and science progress will follow.  

By increasing the number of pilot studies, the number of really new scientific investigations will be fostered.  This new support mechanism provides a good answer to the increasingly frequent question from university scientists, “How can I test my new idea for research and get the required preliminary data when I do not now have a research grant?”  Former faculty grantees who have been hung up to dry or die will have a new opportunity to return to active research.  By fostering new developments, new ideas, and new activity in experimental research, the new pilot study grants will stimulate the improvement and progress of today’s science. 



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