Every year there is a storm of activity in Congress about how much money should be appropriated for federal support of science and research. These yearly debates in Congress are accompanied by focused media campaigns in the public arena. The total annual appropriation is some billions of dollars (see: “Federal obligations for research and development, by character of work, and for R&D plant: FYs 1951-2015” ). Of course, for all the liberals it is never enough! As long as national taxes are collected, the taxpayers provide this huge pile of dollars. All of these activities result in a never-ending upward spiral of more and more dollars.
My view is that more funding is not needed! Since almost nobody will agree with my position, this essay explains and discusses the issue. For beginners, please first get some background by reading “Introduction to Money in Modern Scientific Research”, and “Money Now is Everything in Scientific Research at Universities”. Throughout this essay I am specifically referring to faculty scientists researching in universities.
Reasons why more money seems to be needed!
There are several well-constructed reasons why many more dollars appear to be needed to adequately support and promote scientific research in universities.
(1) Many good projects now cannot be supported by research grants since there are not enough dollars available in the budget appropriated by Congress (see: “Trends in Federal R&D, FY1976-2016” ), meaning that some good studies proposed by university scientists cannot be conducted. All research by all university scientists needs to be supported!
(2) Some approved projects receive only partial funding since there are not enough dollars available to pay for all portions of the budgets requested; this prevents completion of all the specific aims and limits the progress of scientific research!
(3) Since research grants by their nature are competitive, the present shortage of research grant funding results in the very best applicants being fully funded, but most of the others are out of luck; we need more money in order to support all our dedicated university scientists!
(4) New PhD’s are bestowed upon graduate students in science every year; this annual increase in the number of new scientists must be supported by a corresponding annual increase in funding of research grants just for them! More scientists means more progress!
(5) The United States (US) needs to improve its science education for children so we will be able to compete more successfully with the better education provided in some foreign countries (see: “Asia tops biggest global school rankings” ); it will be a disaster if our students are not adequately educated about science, so much more money is required to improve our math and science education!
(6) The most important questions for scientific research (e.g., cancer, water purification, remediation of pollution, solar power, etc.) need to be solved as quickly as possible, so we must selectively fund investigators in these areas; much more money to fund the very best scientists working on these questions will speed up the progress of science for these targets!
Reasons why more money is not needed!
Although all of the foregoing are well-intentioned and some are based on true facts, each reason listed above is strongly disputed!
(1) Not all doctoral scientists conduct research, not all work at universities, and, not all proposed projects are worthy of being funded and conducted; thus, the wish that all should be funded by research grants is just a utopian dream!
(2) The handicap of partial funding is very real, but is an inherent consequence of the competitive nature of the research grant system; some partial support undoubtedly is an attempt by the federal granting agencies to spread their awards to more applicants, thereby keeping them quieter than those receiving no research funds at all.
(3) Competition for research grant awards no longer is a valid term; instead, this must be termed a hyper-competition (see: “All About Today’s Hyper-competition for Research Grants” ). It is a vicious and destructive arrangement, which distorts and disrupts the true aims of science and research. Fully funding all applicants with research grants is impossible, unless and until the streets will become paved with gold!
(4) Increasing money for research support in proportion to the ongoing annual increase in the number of applicants and applications for research grants is another impractical dream; its proponents never state where funds for all the new awards will come from. Generally, more dollars means more taxes!
(5) More money will not necessarily improve science education (i.e., look at what all the money already spent has not accomplished!); instead, what is needed are better teaching, improved students, less memorization and more learning to increase understanding, instruction about problem solving, instruction to counter the false Hollywood message that science and research are entertainments, teaching children and adults how scientific research is very important in the daily life of all people, etc.
(6) Progress in research is always chancy! There is no guarantee whether and when an important research question will be answered. Research grants can be targeted, but it is not predictable which faculty scientist will make the most outstanding discovery. It is unrealistic to throw tons of money at a few scientists, since it is very unclear whether those faculty scientists acquiring large piles of grant money by virtue of their non-science business skills also are the best researchers. Instead, reducing the present emphasis on applied research, and increasing the training of student scientists to investigate basic research within the large areas related to the most important research questions, will increase progress towards these goals.
Brief discussion for Part I.
Examination of the arguments listed above denies the validity of the traditional annual proposal that more and more money is need to support scientific research. In utopia, funding all university scientists certainly would be nice; in the real world, there is not enough money to do that! Also needed are major rearrangements in the priorities and operations of the present system for science in US universities. What is particularly needed are new ideas and changes in the status quo for interactions between research grant agencies and universities; this will be examined in detail by Part II!
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