Monthly Archives: September 2016

JOB PROBLEMS FOR SCIENTISTS GET BIGGER IN 2016: HELP! 

 

The biggest problem for scientists is the entire SYSTEM for conducting research! (http://dr-monsrs.net)
The biggest problem for scientists is the entire SYSTEM for conducting research! (http://dr-monsrs.net)

 

The international science journal, Nature, has just released the results of its 2016 survey of job satisfaction by scientists and other professional research workers [1].  The new survey results are skillfully reported by author, Chris Woolston (see “Salaries: Reality Check” ).  This survey found that “nearly 2/3 of the 3,328 who responded to the question say that they are happy with their current job” [1]; that is good news, but the exact same figures also show that 1/3 of the respondents are unhappy!  The author concludes that the new survey “uncovered widespread unhappiness about earnings, career options, and future prospects” [1]!  Such a high level of job dissatisfaction is both amazing and worrisome!

My dispatch today discusses the shocking results of this 2016 survey.  For background information, please see my earlier articles on “Why Are University Scientists Increasingly Upset With Their Job?  Part I” , and, “Part II” .

Key features about the 2016 survey in Nature [1]!

Every 2 years Nature surveys salaries and job satisfaction with its many worldwide readers.  All in the survey are self-selected, meaning that those who are strongly disheartened or upset will be more likely to respond.  The respondents work in diverse positions, including everything from agricultural research to engineering; research workers in academia range from Postdocs to Full Professors.  The survey results are nicely broken down by age, geography, discipline in science, salary level, amount of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction, positive or negative effects of certain job conditions, and, biggest influence on career progression.  Woolston’s report on this 2016 survey is eminently readable (see: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v537/n7621/full/nj7621-573a.html )!

Notable results in this latest survey of researchers [1]! 

Money is the chief influence on scientists for creating positive or negative feelings about their job.  It determines their salary, pay raises, position, ability to do research studies, security, and future prospects.  Many report they are making financial sacrifices by pursuing a career in science [1].  Almost half the responders say that “the main challenge they face is competition for funding” (of their research) [1]. On the other hand, less than 20% of responders working in non-research positions listed competition for funding as a major problem; that probably is the chief reason they work in non-research jobs.

Geography has a major role in determining both salaries and job satisfaction for scientists, largely reflecting the status of the economy within different countries. At least 50% of responders in 8 nations believe job prospects now are worse than for previous generations; these include Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Soain, United Kingdom, and, United States [1].  Only 2 countries are listed where around 70% see job prospects now as being better than for previous generations (i.e., China, India) [1]; it seems likely that several other nations are in this group, but did not have sufficient responders to be listed.

Significant job problems for scientists beyond the very frequently cited harsh competition for research support funds d(see:  “All About Today’s Hyper-Competition for Research Grants” ) had only low levels of response, except for “lack of appropriate networks and connections” [1].  Scientists holding non-research jobs selected “lack of appropriate networks and connections” and “unwillingness or inability to sacrifice personal time or time with family” as their biggest job problem [1].

Direct quotations by working research scientists [1]!  

Many quotations from individual scientists are notably included in Woolston’s report [1].  These give a human side to the statistics reported, and some are very dramatic!

“There is no future in a research career in Italy” is stated by an Italian molecular biologist working in Naples [1].  She sees many young Italian scientists now relocating to other countries where their career path will not be so very difficult as in Italy [1].  Clearly, something must be extremely amiss to elicit this kind of explicit opinion!  Some other countries in Europe also are facing large difficulties in supporting research due to the condition of their national economy.

A Ukranian postdoc working on physics in Australia does not recommend a science career to people who ask him [1].  A faculty geneticist in Germany concurs and states, “Many people who wanted to do research end up as salespeople at some company” [1]!  Most of the public is blissfully unaware of these strongly negative feelings by scientists.

Are there other big problems besides money for today’s research scientists?  

Yes!  Several other big problems are particularly destructive for scientists working in academia (see: “The Biggest Problems Killing University Science Still Prevail in 2016!” ).  The increasing corruption in scientific research is not mentioned in the 2016 survey, but is painfully felt by faculty scientists.  Management of time is a very general difficulty for almost all academic scientists.

The large practical problems with money are directly caused by the bad policies of universities and of national research granting agencies or programs.  These causes and their effects are strongly interwoven, and combine into nothing less than a system problem!  It will not be enough to provide more money or to reform one or 2 conditions; instead, the entire system must be remodeled or replaced!

Many people do not see the devastating effects caused by the entrenched problems in scientific research.  Woolston’s report gives figures showing that 39% of all the different investigators responding would not recommend a research career [1]!  If the present downward course continues, the end result will be the death of science and research at universities (see:  “Could Science and Research Now be Dying?” ).

Concluding remarks! 

The 2016 survey of scientists by Nature indicates that today’s researcher is confronted by several difficult problems.  These result in conducting research becoming more problematic and scientists leaving the lab.  To rescue academic science from destruction, big changes must be made to the entire system for modern scientific research!

 

[1]  Woolston, C., 2016.  Salaries: Reality Check.  Nature  537:573-576.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v537/n7621/full/nj7621-573a.html .

 

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POSTDOCS IN 2016 NEED TO BE MORE CLEVER, NOT MORE ANGRY! 

 

 

Bright and Eager Young Postdoc in 2016! (http://dr-monsrs.net)
Bright and Eager Young Postdoc in 2016!   (http://dr-monsrs.net)

 

Being a Postdoctoral Research Fellow is traditional for those pursuing a science career in academia.  Everyone agrees that postdocs play a  key role in modern scientific research and deserve to be much appreciated, but there presently is turmoil amongst postdocs leading to proposals that they should have a better salary, higher status, less routine work, and less job stress.  This dispatch is for present postdocs and grad students, and gives my views about some current issues.  My opinions reflect my own experiences with 2 postdoctoral appointments before I found a faculty job, and with several postdocs working in my own research lab on grant-supported projects.

What should postdocs aim to do? 

I have previously discussed this general question in detail (please see: “All About Postdocs, Part II: What Should You Work On and Learn as a Postdoc?” ).

How does being a postdoc help young scientists develop their career? 

The postdoctoral period (e.g., 1-4 years) provides much beyond what was learned in graduate school.  Unlike graduate students, postdocs concentrate on doing research, become technical experts on some instrumentation and methods, solidify their professional identity as researchers in a given area of science, master their ability to compose manuscripts and give oral presentations, and learn about the biggest problems faced by faculty scientists doing research.  Postdocs are analogous to medical residents; hands-on experience is a great teacher!

Postdocs also should learn very much about activities associated with researching (e.g., business aspects of being a research scientist, how the research grant system works, handling administrators and regulations, explaining what their research is trying to do, getting results done in time for deadlines, approaching famous scientists at science meetings, and, what unexpected challenges their chosen career will present).

Is being a postdoc necessary? 

It is not necessary, but sure is very useful for many jobs involving research!  Some faculty positions as fulltime teachers do not require postdoctoral experience.  Postdoctoral training now is increasingly required for researching in industries [1].  For science-related non-research jobs, a postdoctoral period with research usually is not needed; however, a year or 2 of practical experience working in the area is a big plus for landing a good position (i.e., if you want to be a science writer, work in a beginning position with some media organization before you seek a permanent post).

What can postdocs do if they cannot land a job? 

The postdoctoral experience should directly help you get job offers.  If a modern postdoc is unable to land a suitable job in academia (or elsewhere!), they should try hard to identify the cause or causes (e.g., not enough experience, missing some key expertise, amateurish affect in interviews, distance of personal research interest and skills from those wanted by the employer, lack of teaching experience, likelihood for winning a first research grant, etc.).  To identify your causes, it is useful to imagine that you are the potential employer and you are evaluating and interviewing yourself!  Try hard to stop making excuses and start being realistic and decisive about yourself!

Sometimes your candidacy will be strengthened by another postdoctoral position!  In other cases, it becomes obvious that a faculty job is not within your reach, so a major shift in career goals is needed.  The skills mastered and the research experience you obtained as a doctoral degree holder and postdoctoral fellow qualifies you for many good positions outside academia, and even outside research.  Get advice from postdocs who recently succeeded in finding a good position in science.

If everything bothers you so much, then why remain as a postdoc? 

“Permanent postdocs” complain bitterly that they are trapped and being used only as technicians.  Dealing with this quagmire is no fun, but necessitates being brutally realistic!  Are you really sure you would be happy in academia?  Maybe a good science-related job would be better instead of spending more years struggling (see  “Other Jobs for Scientists, Part III: Unconventional Approaches to Find or Create Employment Opportunities” ).

Not every research scientist wants to have to deal with the business of research grants!  They would be very happy to let someone else worry about that, so they can concentrate on doing experimental bench research.  Changes are afoot whereby professional research positions are becoming available with no teaching duties and no requirement to obtain research grant awards.  These newer academic positions have various labels, such as  Professional Research Staff, Associate Researcher, or Senior Researcher; salaries, benefits, and job atmosphere seem quite appealing!

Commentary on some common mistakes and misunderstandings made by postdocs! 

I will now list and comment on what I see as mistakes and misunderstandings for modern postdocs.  Whether you agree or disagree, see if any applies to you.

  1. Select your mentor and postdoctoral institution according to what you want for a future job and professional identity.
  2. Being a postdoc is not a continuation of graduate school; it is much more and quite different!  Become an expert!  Become a professional!
  3. Postdocs are not yet fully independent scientists; some big activities are conducted by the mentor, so be grateful no matter what happens!
  4. Many problems bothering modern postdocs are a direct preview of job problems science faculty have to deal with (see “Why Are University Scientists Increasingly Upset With Their Job?  Part II” )!
  5. There is nothing wrong, and often is something quite beneficial, with having a second postdoctoral experience!
  6. Becoming a permanent postdoc (i.e., a super-technician) mostly is your own fault. Take a look at industrial science employment, non-faculty science jobs, and non-research jobs available for doctorates in science.  Make changes, be more clever, and try something new, or, make the best of it!
  7. In my opinion, the main special benefits of the postdoctoral experience are becoming better with handling the time problem, getting several good publications, understanding research grants and the business of being a scientist, getting to know other researchers and talking to famous research leaders, and, learning exactly what it means to be a fulltime professional scientist!

A personal statement from Dr.M!  

Working on scientific research as a postdoc often is one of the most exciting and wonderful times for scientists.  It certainly was for me!

Concluding remarks! 

Being a postdoctoral researcher should be an enchanting experience for any dedicated scientist!  The world of postdocs now is opening up; postdoc positions now are more numerous in industrial research labs [1], and longer-term professional research positions with good pay and benefits are being established at universities.

 

[1]  Woolston, C., 2016.  Industry: Open for business.  Nature  537:437-439.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v537/n7620/full/nj7620-437a.html .

 

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WHISTLEBLOWER SUES DUKE UNIVERSITY FOR ACQUIRING RESEARCH GRANTS VIA FALSIFIED RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS! 

 

 

It's time to stop the need to cheat in academic research! (http://dr-monsrs.net)
It’s time to stop the need to cheat in academic research! (http://dr-monsrs.net)

 

Dishonesty in scientific research hurts everyone and seems to be increasing.  Cheating and corruption are especially notable for research activities at universities and medical schools (see “Why Would Any Scientist Ever Cheat?” ).  Most steps aiming to reduce research misconduct sadly are not very effective, due in part to the well-known tendency of universities to stonewall and deny any wrongdoing.

This article discusses how research fraud by a staff employee at the Duke University Medical Center now has expanded with a lawsuit filed by a whistleblower alleging that many millions of dollars of research grants from several federal agencies were acquired based on research results known to be falsified [1-4].  This new legal case is unusual and could force this prestigious university to return up to 3 times the awarded research support funds to the U.S. government [1-5].

Brief background about the U.S. False Claims Act [5] ! 

The False Claims Act (FCA) lets a U.S. citizen file suit on behalf of the federal government, to recover awarded funds that were fraudulently obtained.  Previous use of the FCA against research fraud has been very limited.  This new case at Duke not only will involve faculty and academic officials, but also invokes participation by the U.S. Department of Justice, officials at the National Institutes of Health and other federal agencies, several institutions having research collaborations with Duke, and very specialized lawyers.  A whistleblower winning an FCA lawsuit can obtain up to 30% of fraudulently acquired funds mandated to be returned to the government!

Nothing is simple in research misconduct, because others always are involved [1-4] !  

To its credit, Duke University formally investigated the research staff employee, Erin Potts-Kant, suspected of producing fraudulent research results, and found that over a dozen research publications involving her with coauthors, including the Principal Investigator, Prof. William M. Foster (Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, at the Department of Medicine) were retracted or “corrected”; some published data was admitted to be unreliable.

The new FCA lawsuit recently has been filed (and unsealed) against this researcher, her supervisor, Duke University, and Duke University Health Systems by Joseph Thomas, formerly employed as a research coworker with Potts-Kant.  He earlier had expressed his concerns about research integrity to officials at Duke.  This FCA suit alleges that fraudulent published data was knowingly included in over 60 research grant applications, yielding awards totalling some $200,000,000.  Trial for this FCA case currently is pending.

What does this FCA case mean for dishonesty and corruption in academic science? 

I have previously described my view that dishonesty with scientific research in academia is largely an outcome of bad policies and activities by both (1) university science, which has been converted into a business where money is the goal (see “Money Now is Everything in Scientific Research at Universities” ), and (2) the current research grant system, where the destructive hyper-competition for research grant money now overrules all aspects of being an academic scientist and directly causes dishonesty (see  “All About Today’s Hyper-Competition for Research Grants” ).  Punishments for university faculty scientists getting caught with unethical research conduct have been notoriously weak or meaningless (see  “Dishonesty in Scientific Research: Are the Punishments for Being Caught Sufficient to Deter More Cheating?” ); now they will become much tougher due to the new involvement of the FCA for cases alleging research fraud.

The new legal situation using the FCA can result in a university actually having to pay big dollars for not having adequate control of dishonesty in its science activities.  The possibility that universities could face substantial financial penalties for research misconduct by any faculty cheaters and unethical employees now worries all private academic institutions; that’s good news!  Dealing with this grave problem of cheating in research publications and grant applications finally is given some teeth!

Whistleblowers are very significant! 

History shows that science cannot police itself.  The False Claims Act provides a strong pathway for whistleblowers to make their case known for research misconduct observed at universities and medical schools.  The new FCA case at Duke has the very positive effect of calling everyone’s attention to the important role of whistleblowers in reporting unethical science.  Dr. Peter Wilmshurst, a courageous clinical faculty researcher who has successfully blown the whistle on several cases of shameful misconduct by faculty scientists and medical industries (see  “Whistleblowers in Science are Necessary to Keep Research and Science-Based Industries Honest!” ), provides an inspiring model for having the guts to struggle with protecting honesty in clinical science.  If the new FCA trial verifies the alleged misconduct at Duke and forces that large university to refund research grant funds awarded on the basis of falsified publications, then the vital role of whistleblowers in keeping academic science honest will be made more widely recognized.

Concluding remarks! 

The increasing incidence of research misconduct in academic science is one of the gravest problems facing modern university scientists.  The pressures on science faculty from the hyper-competition for research grants are just enormous and causes some scientists to cheat.  Unless this hyper-competition and the conversion of university science into just another business entity both are stopped, then academic science will continue dying (see “Could  Science and Research Now be Dying?” , and “The Biggest Problems Killing University Science Still Prevail in 2016!” ). The extensive changes needed to accomplish that must involve the entire system for modern science!

 

[1]  McCook, A., 2016 (September 2).  Duke fraud case highlights financial risks for universities.  Science  353:977-978.  Available on the internet at:  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/353/6303/977.full ).

[2]  Staff Reports, 2016 (September 2).  Former researcher sues Duke, alleges Uni used improper data to receive funding.  The Duke Chronicle.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.dukechronicle.com/article/2016/09/former-researcher-sues-duke-alleges-uni-used-improper-data-to-receive-funding .

[3]  Patel, V., 2016 (September 7).  Experts address research fabrication lawsuit against Duke, note litigation could be lengthy.  The Duke Chronicle.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.dukechronicle.com/article/2016/09/experts-address-research-fabrication-lawsuit-against-duke-note-litigation-could-be-protracted .

[4]  Aquino, J.T., 2016 (September 9).  Whistleblower suit claiming Duke faked data is warning signal.  Bloomberg BNA.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.bna.com/whistleblower-suit-claiming-n73014447442/ .

[5]  McCook, A., 2015 (March 18).  So you want to be a whistleblower?  A lawyer explains  the process.  Retraction Watch.  Available on the internet at:  http://retractionwatch.com/2015/03/18/so-you-want-to-be-a-whistleblower-a-lawyer-explains-the-process/ .

 

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THEORY VERSUS PRACTICE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH! 

 

Quotation by Yogi Berra, star catcher for the New York Yankees baseball team; also attributed to several other persons! (http://dr-monsrs.net)
Quotation by Yogi Berra, star catcher for the New York Yankees baseball team; also attributed to several other persons! (http://dr-monsrs.net)

 

Theories play a big role in science!  I recently presented a short introduction for beginners about science theories (see “Towards Understanding Theoretical Research in  Science!” ).  Here, we will look at some current research developments in Astronomy that illustrate examples of theories within space research.

A brief background for beginners on the science of Astronomy! 

Knowledge in ancient times about our planet, Earth, our Moon, our Sun, and the stars came from direct observations with the naked eyes.  The early development of telescopes, photography, and other ways to record positions of celestial objects permitted measurements to be made; that was the real start of astronomy as part of physical science.

Astronomy today has the tools and technology to examine everything from the other planets circling our Sun, to distant galaxies and energy emissions in outer space.  Modern research in astronomy has been expanded by the development of space science with its explorations using robotic labs sent on distant travels, space telescopes and new large terrestrial telescopes, and, numerous advanced spectroscopes.  These tools and methods gather quantitative data that go far beyond what could be done by researchers only a few decades ago.  The new availability of direct measurements means that theories in astronomy now can be tested against real data.

Do exoplanets exist!

Humans have long wondered if we are alone, or if there are other planets with life somewhere out in the universe.  A theory that exoplanets (i.e., planets circling other stars) do exist is mirrored by a theory that there are no others!   The validity of any theory must be tested by evidence from research results.  Due to their limited size and great distance away from Earth, exoplanets cannot yet be directly imaged by any terrestrial telescopes; space telescopes should be able to do that, if exoplanets actually exist.  Instead of using light waves to form images, telescopes and radiotelescopes now can detect other wavelengths and types of radiation, and record spectra rather than images; much development in this research methodology has resulted in good confidence for interpretating spectroscopic data, although confirmation from adjunctive results always also is sought. Recent discoveries of hundreds of planets orbiting many other stars [e.g., 1] establishes validity of the theory that exoplanets do exist.

Proxima b is discovered! 

One exoplanet, Proxima b, has just been reported by an international team of scientists, after analyzing research data back to 2000 [1]!  It is slightly larger than Earth, and encircles our neighboring star, Proxima Centauri, with a periodicity of 11.2 days; its equilibrium temperature permits liquid water to be present.  There is much excitement in astronomy over this new research finding, because its relative closeness to Earth means that it will be a prime target for future fly-by missions.  A new article for general readers about the discovery of this exoplanet, written for CNN by Ashley Strickland [2], now is available (see: “Proxima b: Closest potentially habitable planet to our solar system found” ).

Does water exist on any exoplanet? 

Liquid water is a key component of all forms of life on Earth.  Any theory that life exists on exoplanets generally requires the presence of water there; this links one theory to another theory!  Space scientists are already defining the width of a zone around some stars as being habitable if its temperature range includes that required for liquid water to be present; however, such an estimation does not establish that water actually is present.  Much more direct research data is needed to be able to resolve this important question.

Does life exist on any exoplanets? 

The enormous distance of exoplanets from Earth makes any theory that life is present there extremely difficult to test.  The distant locations make it impractical to send scientists or robots out to any exoplanet via a spaceship.  Several innovative ideas for how to obtain direct images of exoplanets now are being developed and activated (e.g., see “Can Research Travel Out to the Stars?  Yuri Milner Says “Yes, Let’s Go!” ).  Advanced spectroscopy perhaps is the only currently available means to detect life forms on exoplanets, since direct imaging is not yet possible.

How to interpret images from exoplanets? 

Direct imaging of exoplanets is eagerly awaited!  All images in science must be interpreted, but the interpretation of future direct images from exoplanets is guaranteed to be a major controversy since images showing either creatures resembling those we all know on Earth, or something wildly different, will provoke vigorous doubts by other scientists and the public!  Life might exist that utilizes other means for energy mobilization, and does not need either water or oxygen; thus, exotic life forms imaged on exoplanets might not be recognizable as such!  Objective interpretation of those images might be nearly impossible!

Brief discussion! 

Nothing is written in stone, and everything can be questioned by scientists!  Theories are particularly useful in science as targets for new research experiments.  All theories must be evaluated on the basis of their ability to explain direct observations and measurements.  Theories can be proven or disproven by evidence from research results; valid theories have a predictive ability.  Even proven theories can be modified as more research data becomes available.  Speculative ideas and imaginative proposals differ from science theories because they are judged largely on the basis of popularity and subjective promise, rather than by direct evidence.

Concluding remarks! 

Theories in science always are controversial and hard to prove.  In space science, new research results now permit the validity of some theories to be tested directly.  These indeed are very exciting times for space scientists!

 

[1]  Anglada-Escudé, G., et al., August 25, 2016.  A terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit around Proxima CentauriNature  536:437-440.

[2]  Strickland, A., for CNN, August 24, 2016.  Proxima b: Closest potentially habitable planet to our solar system found.  CNN – Health.

 

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IT’S TIME FOR THE 2016 KAVLI PRIZE WEEK (SEPTEMBER 5 – 8)!

 

Notable quotations by FRED KAVLI about scientific research. Obtained from http:www.youtube.com/watch?v=ch6yMD4JGCo, and from http://www/kavliprize.org/about/fred-kavli.
Notable quotations by FRED KAVLI about scientific research. Obtained from
http:www.youtube.com/watch?v=ch6yMD4JGCo, and from http://www/kavliprize.org/about/fred-kavli.

 

The Kavli Prizes are awarded every 2 years to scientists whose research investigations have made seminal advances in science.  These Prizes were established by Fred Kavli (1927-2013), a physicist, inventor, and industrialist.  Kavli Prizes have the same level of high honor as the Nobel Prizes, but are restricted to 3 large areas of science (astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience).  For 2016, 9 pioneering scientists were announced as awardees in June, and next week the Kavli Prizes will be presented at a special ceremony in Oslo, Norway, during the Kavli Prize Week festivities.

Today’s dispatch briefly gives information about the newest Kavli Prize Laureates and their important research achievements.

Kavli Prize Week and the Kavli Foundation! 

The Kavli Prize website presents much information about the Kavli Prizes and Kavli Prize Week, including the selection of awardees, biographies and information about the newest and the previous Laureates, recordings of presentations by the Laureates, and, several other items for viewing by the general public (e.g., Popular Science Lectures).  This website is highly recommended and very worthy for you to explore independently!

The schedule of events for the 2016 Kavli Prize Week and abstracts for the 2016 Laureate Lectures by the new awardees are given in “The Kavli Prize Week 2016 – Program”The Kavli Foundation issues educational videos explaining the 3 areas of modern science involving the Kavli Prizes.

The 2016 Kavli Prize Laureates! 

The Kavli Prize in Astrophysics (see “2016 Prize in Astrophysics”) is shared between Ronald W. P. Drever (California Institute of Technology, United States), Kip S. Thorne (California Institute of Technology, United States), and Rainer Weiss (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States), for their recent direct detection of gravitational waves after many years of controversy about whether these features of cosmology actually existed (see “Brian Greene Explains the Discovery of Gravitational Waves”; also see “Rainer Weiss”).  By persisting in their studies when confronted by failures to detect any gravitational waves, they finally succeeded; their discovery translates theory into practice, and thereby creates a whole new branch of astronomy.

The Kavli Prize in Nanoscience (see “2016 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience: A discussion with Gerd Binnig and Christoph Gerber” ) is shared between Gerd Binnig (IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Switzerland), Christoph Gerber (University of Basel, Switzerland), and Calvin Quate (Stanford University, United States), for their invention and development of the atomic force microscope.  This new tool for research greatly advances imaging of the molecular and atomic structure of nonconducting surfaces, and permits directly measuring surface properties at the level of different atoms.  Research with atomic force microscopy now is widely used for nanoscience investigations of many different materials in all 3 branches of science; this instrument is wonderfully versatile, so unexpected new applications continue to develop (e.g., usage for medical diagnosis of cancer patients).  Atomic force microscopy took decades of dedicated work to be fully developed and explored.  Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer were awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics for their invention of the scanning tunneling microscope; that innovative new instrument necessarily preceded the invention and development of the atomic force microscope.

The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience (see “2016 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience: A discussion with Eve Marder, Michael Marzenich, and Carla Shatz” ) is shared between Eve Marder (Brandeis University, United States), Michael Marzenich (University of California at San Francisco, United States), and Carla Shatz (Stanford University, United States), for their research showing that the adult brain changes its architecture and functioning from experience and learning (i.e., brain remodeling and neuroplasticity).  This new concept is derived from study of several different model systems, and replaces the traditional view that the adult brain is static and can no longer change.  Their new model of the brain encourages development of new therapeutic approaches to treat adult human brain dysfunctions (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, senility, trauma, etc.).

General discussion! 

All the 2016 Kavli Prize Laureates exemplify the expectation that scientists should be creative individuals who are not afraid to explore new ideas, concepts, and approaches!  Their celebrated work has included both basic and applied research, theoretical and experimental studies, and, development of new research methods and instruments.  Their outstanding discoveries were the result of persistent dedication to research as a source for new knowledge; their use of collaborative investigations is prominent.  The 9 Laureates in 2016 are outstanding researchers, and all serve as good role models for young scientists just beginning their professional  careers.

Concluding remarks! 

The 2016 Kavli Prizes admirably fulfill the intention of the late Fred Kavli to honor excellence in research, to emphasize the importance of basic science, and to promote public education about scientific research.  All people should join in celebrating the new Kavli Prize Laureates!

 

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