Tag Archives: astrophysics



Notable quotations by FRED KAVLI about scientific research. Obtained from http:www.youtube.com/watch?v=ch6yMD4JGCo, and from http://www/kavliprize.org/about/fred-kavli.
Notable quotations by FRED KAVLI about scientific research. Obtained from
http:www.youtube.com/watch?v=ch6yMD4JGCo, and from http://www/kavliprize.org/about/fred-kavli.


The Kavli Prizes are awarded every 2 years to scientists whose research investigations have made seminal advances in science.  These Prizes were established by Fred Kavli (1927-2013), a physicist, inventor, and industrialist.  Kavli Prizes have the same level of high honor as the Nobel Prizes, but are restricted to 3 large areas of science (astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience).  For 2016, 9 pioneering scientists were announced as awardees in June, and next week the Kavli Prizes will be presented at a special ceremony in Oslo, Norway, during the Kavli Prize Week festivities.

Today’s dispatch briefly gives information about the newest Kavli Prize Laureates and their important research achievements.

Kavli Prize Week and the Kavli Foundation! 

The Kavli Prize website presents much information about the Kavli Prizes and Kavli Prize Week, including the selection of awardees, biographies and information about the newest and the previous Laureates, recordings of presentations by the Laureates, and, several other items for viewing by the general public (e.g., Popular Science Lectures).  This website is highly recommended and very worthy for you to explore independently!

The schedule of events for the 2016 Kavli Prize Week and abstracts for the 2016 Laureate Lectures by the new awardees are given in “The Kavli Prize Week 2016 – Program”The Kavli Foundation issues educational videos explaining the 3 areas of modern science involving the Kavli Prizes.

The 2016 Kavli Prize Laureates! 

The Kavli Prize in Astrophysics (see “2016 Prize in Astrophysics”) is shared between Ronald W. P. Drever (California Institute of Technology, United States), Kip S. Thorne (California Institute of Technology, United States), and Rainer Weiss (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States), for their recent direct detection of gravitational waves after many years of controversy about whether these features of cosmology actually existed (see “Brian Greene Explains the Discovery of Gravitational Waves”; also see “Rainer Weiss”).  By persisting in their studies when confronted by failures to detect any gravitational waves, they finally succeeded; their discovery translates theory into practice, and thereby creates a whole new branch of astronomy.

The Kavli Prize in Nanoscience (see “2016 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience: A discussion with Gerd Binnig and Christoph Gerber” ) is shared between Gerd Binnig (IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Switzerland), Christoph Gerber (University of Basel, Switzerland), and Calvin Quate (Stanford University, United States), for their invention and development of the atomic force microscope.  This new tool for research greatly advances imaging of the molecular and atomic structure of nonconducting surfaces, and permits directly measuring surface properties at the level of different atoms.  Research with atomic force microscopy now is widely used for nanoscience investigations of many different materials in all 3 branches of science; this instrument is wonderfully versatile, so unexpected new applications continue to develop (e.g., usage for medical diagnosis of cancer patients).  Atomic force microscopy took decades of dedicated work to be fully developed and explored.  Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer were awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics for their invention of the scanning tunneling microscope; that innovative new instrument necessarily preceded the invention and development of the atomic force microscope.

The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience (see “2016 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience: A discussion with Eve Marder, Michael Marzenich, and Carla Shatz” ) is shared between Eve Marder (Brandeis University, United States), Michael Marzenich (University of California at San Francisco, United States), and Carla Shatz (Stanford University, United States), for their research showing that the adult brain changes its architecture and functioning from experience and learning (i.e., brain remodeling and neuroplasticity).  This new concept is derived from study of several different model systems, and replaces the traditional view that the adult brain is static and can no longer change.  Their new model of the brain encourages development of new therapeutic approaches to treat adult human brain dysfunctions (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, senility, trauma, etc.).

General discussion! 

All the 2016 Kavli Prize Laureates exemplify the expectation that scientists should be creative individuals who are not afraid to explore new ideas, concepts, and approaches!  Their celebrated work has included both basic and applied research, theoretical and experimental studies, and, development of new research methods and instruments.  Their outstanding discoveries were the result of persistent dedication to research as a source for new knowledge; their use of collaborative investigations is prominent.  The 9 Laureates in 2016 are outstanding researchers, and all serve as good role models for young scientists just beginning their professional  careers.

Concluding remarks! 

The 2016 Kavli Prizes admirably fulfill the intention of the late Fred Kavli to honor excellence in research, to emphasize the importance of basic science, and to promote public education about scientific research.  All people should join in celebrating the new Kavli Prize Laureates!





Theories and research results are both important for science! (http://dr-monsrs.net)
Theories and research results are both important for science! (http://dr-monsrs.net)


Despite the efforts of education and media, most people still do not know or understand much about science and scientific research.  The understanding I am referring to does not involve facts and figures so much as activities, aims, and rationales.  Research in theoretical science is particularly viewed and rejected as being a total waste of money and time.  Those mistaken viewpoints are largely due to an absence  of knowledge about the usefulness of theories in science.  This article tries to illuminate the value of theoretical research so you will understand how it plays an important role in the advancement of science.

Theories in science! 

Science wants to know more about everything!  Most research in biomedicine, chemistry, or physics deals with subjects and activities that can be examined directly or indirectly (e.g., animals or cells, polymers or monomers, and, minerals or atoms).  Theories in all branches of science deal with subjects that are not able to be examined directly or indirectly, but can be investigated at the level of what is known already, what could be possible, what can explain something that is not understood, what would happen if and when, and, how can some valid estimate be made for something that cannot be measured directly.  Theories in science basically use what is known to try to investigate or explain something that is unknown and unavailable for direct studies; their validity is judged on  the basis of evidence from research experiments.

Theory versus practice! 

Scientists usually are very specialized, but all can be divided into being either theorists or experimentalists.  The boundaries of this division can be changed with time, when more new knowledge by experimentalists is discovered.  A good example of this dynamic occurred recently when research probes and very special research instruments began to be sent far out into space (e.g., see:  “The New James Webb Space Telescope!” ); all of a sudden, astrophysicists working only at the level of theoretical physics had to confront their theories with real data!  Some of their theories about planets, stars, galaxies, and dark holes were validated, others had to be modified, and some were disproved.  Note that even established theories that are later shown to be invalid still had been helpful for temporarily filling gaps within scientific knowledge about outer space; by proving or disproving a theory, the newly acquired experimental data advances the scientific search for truth.

My own thesis advisor was an experimentalist in cell biology, and once told me that he had seen a certain senior professor walking along a walkway on campus with his head bent forward looking only down at the pavement.  That individual was a pioneering theoretical biologist who analyzed subjects with mathematics; anyone could readily imagine all kinds of equations bouncing around his head as he walked along!  My advisor said all that was very well so long as the theories agreed with practice (i.e., with direct experimental data).  I then asked him what he meant.  He answered that this theoretician had developed a mathematical study of eukaryotic cell division, and had come up with an extensive conclusion about how that activity operated, including that the entire process took place in 24.3 seconds; this number does not match actual direct observations with microscopy showing that it takes some hours!

What is the value of theories for science? 

Theories are good for science because they provide discrete points of study for new research, can give estimates where direct measurements cannot be made, and, help understand complex activities and relationships which are impossible to examine directly.  For science, theories are useful as targets for research questions and for designing new experiments.

Scientific theories are more than just fanciful ideas.  They are somewhat similar to large conclusions from direct research studies in that they: (1) always are subject to revision (i.e., due to new research results), (2) often last a long time, but some vanish when they are completely disproved, and, (3) stimulate new directions for experimental researchers to work on.

A classical example of the value of theories for science is the heliocentric theory of Copernicus, proposing that the Earth revolves around the Sun, unlike the older standard theory that the Sun circles around the Earth.  As time passed, more and more experimental research data provided evidence that the standard theory is wrong and the heliocentric theory is correct.  Many modern researchers in astronomy and space science now follow what has developed from the ancient theory of Copernicus.

Another good example is Darwin‘s theory of evolution.  That complex proposal cannot be directly examined today because the eons of time during which it operated are unavailable.  This extensive theory can explain very many observable details about similarities, differences, and specializations in animals, plants, microbes, and fossils.  The large amount of solid evidence from research for the validity of this classical theory does not prevent ongoing questions and criticisms from being raised.  That is good and is essential for science’s mission to find the truth based upon evidence from research results!

Concluding remarks! 

Everything can and should be questioned, even well-known theories, dogmas, or popular sacred cows!  Science always seeks to evaluate and test accepted conclusions, concepts, and theories when new research experiments make additional data available.  Theories and research in science are complementary, and both are very useful!






Life is a great adventure for some scientists! (http://dr-monsrs.net)
Life is truly a great adventure for some scientists! (http://dr-monsrs.net)


This will be my very shortest dispatch, since here I only want to urge everyone to read about the fantastic life of the physicist, Rainer Weiss, in a masterful account by Adrian Cho (see:  “The Storyteller” in August 5, 2016 Science 353:532-537)!  No understanding of physics is needed!  Just read and enjoy it!

What a life!  What a wild fellow!  After flunking out of college, he used his creativity to survive and become a celebrated researcher!  What a creative tinkerer and experimenter!  Very unconventional!  Awesome!  What a distinctive individual!  Yes, scientists are people!






The new Webb telescope will be a big eye in the sky! (http://dr-monsrs.net)
The new Webb telescope will be a big eye in the sky!  (http://dr-monsrs.net)


NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and its many partners now are building a giant new space telescope, with launch scheduled for October, 2018 (see: “James Webb Space Telescope” at the NASA website).  The construction phase of the Webb space telescope involves efforts by over 1,000 special workers in 14 nations, a total cost of 80 billion dollars, and, many industrial and academic organizations.  This huge science project is being conducted during about 10 years of time; it involves use of new technologies and building several special new research instruments.  Once the complex assembly is completed and fully tested, it will be transported by ship to the rocket launch site in South America, where it will be sent far into space.  This new mission for science will provide important new research data for astronomy, astrophysics, and space science; its research results will go far beyond the amazing images and data obtained by the orbiting Hubble space telescope launched in 1990.

What is the Webb space telescope [1-3]? 

The new space telescope will be as large as a moving van and will be placed into a specific region of space located about one million miles away from Earth.  It contains small rockets to provide for final adjustment of its position.  Data collected from its newly constructed high-tech mirror systems provide very high sensitivity, increased optical resolution, and longer wavelength coverage.  This space instrument is specialized to detect and measure near- and mid-infrared wavelengths, since those come from the  oldest stars.  Data will be transmitted back to the Webb Science and Operations Center at the  NASA Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, for analysis and distribution to research scientists and groups.  The new Webb space telescope is planned to operate in the cold vacuum of space for 5-10 years, starting in 2018.

What will the new space telescope do for scientific research [1-3]? 

At present, the Webb mission has 4 goals: (1) search for the first galaxies or luminous objects formed after the Big Bang, (2) determine how galaxies evolved from their formation until now, (3) observe the formation of stars and their planetary systems, and (4) examine the physical and chemical properties of extraterrestrial planetary systems, including investigations of their potential for life.  The Webb extends the capabilities of the Hubble space telescope by having much better detection sensitivity (10-100x), optical resolution, and telescopic spectroscopy.  By being able to look out to the far edges of the universe, the Webb can view and measure the very oldest stars and galaxies.

What are the chief worries about the new space telescope [1-3]? 

As with any very complex and multiyear building project, unforeseen problems can arise later.  The Hubble space telescope had an unanticipated problem that fortunately was able to be nicely repaired by visiting astronauts.  Since the new Webb telescope will be much further away from Earth than is Hubble, it will be impossible for astronauts to fix problems.  Thus, the preflight testing must be much more rigorous and extensive.  However, it is never certain that everything will work and last exactly as expected; extremely unusual events could occur (e.g., collision with a large meteorite, very high bursts of different radiations from our Sun, malfunction of communication systems, etc.) and might be beyond the capabilities of adjustments during its operation in space.

Many people will ask a very natural question, “Why do we humans need a new space telescope?”.  Technical answers that it will give results beyond those provided by the Hubble space telescope, will have a hollow ring to non-scientists asking this question.  A better answer is that all of us, whether scientists or ordinary people, deserve to have extended knowledge and understanding about our universe; dramatic new data provided by the Webb space telescope will do just that.

Will the new findings of this space telescope justify its immense cost [1-3]? 

This huge research project raises an interesting general question about scientific research.  Although the 80 billion dollar budget for the Webb is cut back from the initial plans, just about everyone must admit that this cost figure is gigantic.  It is reasonable to expect that the research by space scientists using data from the Webb will produce significant advances in understanding the formation and evolution of the oldest stars in our universe, the life cycles of stars, the environmental composition of different exoplanets, and possibilities for living systems on planets circling other stars.

Although accepting that answer, some scientists will ask the logical question, “How many research grants of ordinary cost and size could be made with the same 80 billion dollars?”.  Their follow-up question will be, “What would be the value of the new research results collected by all those numerous small projects?”.  Clearly, such questions are simply the latest in the ongoing controversy about the value of Big Science versus Small Science.  Answers cannot be provided at present because so much is unknown or theoretical.

Where can good information be found about the new Webb space telescope?  

There is an abundance of information available about the design, construction, and objectives of the Webb space telescope!  For starters, see websites about the Webb by NASA , the Canadian Space Agency , and, the European Space Agency .  These have loads of information, diagrams, videos, and the latest news about this giant research project; they are designed to be suitable and understandable for adults, students, teachers, children, and parents, as well as for scientists.

You also even can sign-up with NASA to receive e-mail newsletters with the latest updates for the Webb space research project !

For those curious about the efforts of all the numerous engineers,  scientists, and technologists working with this space project, I recommend the truly outstanding article by Daniel Clery, “The Next Big Eye”, within the February 19, 2016, issue of the journal, Science.  This well-illustrated piece includes a very good discussion about how these individuals are subject to increasingly large pressures as the assembly and testing advances.

Concluding remarks! 

The work of designing, fabricating, assembly, and testing the different components used for the Webb space telescope is an utterly fascinating story showing what humans are capable of doing!  After the final assembly is completed, its testing under conditions of space while still here on Earth also will be a wondrous story.  Much credit must go to the managers who coordinate all the different small and large groups working on this complex assembly project at diverse locations; they must ensure that everything fits together and functions reliably just as planned.  The Webb mission should produce much exciting new understanding about our Sun, our universe, and conditions on the planets of other stars!


[1]  “Explore James Webb New Space Telescope” is available on the internet at:  http://www.jwst.nasa.gov .

[2]  “FAQ: General Questions About Webb” is available on the internet at:  http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/faq.html .

[3]  “Webb Telescope Science Themes” is available on the internet at:  http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/science.html .




Notable quotations by FRED KAVLI about scientific research.  Obtained from  http:www.youtube.com/watch?v=ch6yMD4JGCo , and from http://www/kavliprize.org/about/fred-kavli ,

Notable quotations by FRED KAVLI about scientific research.  Obtained from http:www.youtube.com/watch?v=ch6yMD4JGCo , and from http://www/kavliprize.org/about/fred-kavli .

  The Kavli Prizes are bestowed every 2 years for the most outstanding research within 3 of the largest branches of modern science: astrophysicsnanoscience, and neuroscience [1].  These international Prizes are made possible by the late Fred Kavli, who was born in Norway and later moved to the USA, held a degree in physics, and was a very successful industrialist; he generously donated funds to establish this new award program.  Kavli Prizes were first awarded in 2008, and are regarded as having the same very high prestige as the Nobel Prizes in science [2].  Nevertheless, the Kavli Prizes have several distinctive differences from the Nobel Prizes, particularly for their focus on only 3 topical areas in modern science, their open nomination process, and their recent origin in the 21st century. I recently covered the announcement of the 2014 awardees of the Nobel Prizes in science (see “The 2014 Nobel Prizes in Science are Announced” ).  The honorees for the 2014 Kavli Prizes were announced in late May, and their awards were presented in September as part of the extensive Kavli Prize Week festivities in Oslo (Norway).  In this article I will first give a short description about Fred Kavli and the nature of the Kavli Prizes, and then will offer an overview of the 2014 Kavli Prize awardees and their seminal research discoveries.  Each segment is followed by sources for additional information that are available on the internet.    [1]  The Kavli Prize, 2014.  Kavli Foundation – Science prizes for the future.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.kavliprize.org/about .   [2]  Nobel Prizes, 2014.  Nobel Prize facts.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/facts/ .   Fred Kavli and the Kavli Prizes Fred Kavli was an entrepreneur, a vigorous worker and leader in industry, an outspoken advocate for experimental research, a philanthropist, an innovator, and an amazing benefactor of science.  After he sold his very successful business, he established the Kavli Foundation.  This works to “support scientific research aimed at improving the quality of life for people around the world”.  It does this through establishing research institutes at universities in many different countries, endowing professorial chairs at universities, sponsoring science symposia and workshops, engaging the public in science via education, promoting scientists’ communications, and, rewarding excellence in science journalism.  As part of these programs, the Kavli Prizes were established by the Foundation in associatiion with The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and The Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research.   The Kavli Prizes are intended to honor scientists “for making seminal advances in 3 research areas: astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience”.  Fred Kavli elected to emphasize research areas representing the largest subjects (astrophysics studies the entire universe), the smallest subjects (nanoscience studies structure and function at the level of atoms and molecules), and the most complex subjects (neuroscientists can study normal and pathological functioning of the human brain).  Fred Kavli was particularly enthusiastic about supporting basic scientific research because he correctly viewed that as the generator of subsequent developments providing practical benefits for humanity.   He also recognized that experimental science is not always predictable, and that practical consequences often arise only many years after a discovery in basic research.  Clearly, all of the programs sponsored by Fred Kavli are having and will continue to have a very beneficial impact on science in the modern world. The selection of Kavli Prize Laureates is made by international committees of distinguished scientists recommended by several national academies of science.  The awards are announced by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters as part of the opening events at the annual World Science Festival.  During the Kavli Prize Week in Oslo, each Laureate receives a gold medal, a special scroll, and a large financial award, from a member of the royal family of Norway. Very good information about Fred Kavli (1927 – 2013) is given on the internet by the Kavli Prize website at:  http://www.kavliprize.org/about/fred-kavli .  A glimpse into Kavli’s life, personality, and hopes for science progress is offered by several good short videos on the internet: (1) “WSF (World Science Festival) Remembers Fred Kavli (1927-2013), Giant of Science Philanthropy” at:   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ch6yMD4JGCc  (wonderful!), and, (2) “Basic Research’s Generous Benefactor” at:   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lYkvP_HKZZY  (very highly recommended!).  The organization, purpose, and history of the Kavli Prizes and the Kavli Foundation are available at:  http://www.kavliprize.org/about/guidelines ,  and at:  http://www.kavliprize.org/about/kavli-foundation 2014 Kavli Prize in Astrophysics The 2014 Kavli Prize iin Astrop hysics was awarded jointly to 3 professors working with theoretical physics: Alan H. Guth, Ph.D. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), Andrei D. Linde, Ph.D. (Stanford University, USA), and Alexei A. Starobinsky, Ph.D. (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Russia).  These  awards are made for their independent development of the modern theory of ‘cosmic inflation’, which proposes that the there was a very brief yet gigantic expansion of our universe shortly after its initial formation; this dramatic new theory now has been supported by some data from space probes and caused large changes in current theoretical concepts for the evolution of the cosmos.    Further information about the 2014 Kavli Prize in Astrophysics and these Laureates is available on the internet at:  http://www.kavliprize.org/prizes-and-laureates/prizes/2014-kavli-prize-laureates-astrophysics . 2014 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience The 2014 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience was awarded to 3 university professors:  Thomas W. Ebbeson, Ph.D. (University of Strasbourg, France), Stefan W. Hell, Ph.D. (Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry}, and John B. Pendry, Ph.D. (Imperial College London, U.K.).  Each independently researched different aspects of basic and applied optics needed to advance the resolution level of light microscopy much beyond what had been believed to be possible; their research findings led to the development of nano-optics and the transformation of light microscopy into nanoscopy.  The new ability of light microscopy to now see objects at the nanoscale dimension greatly expands and improves its utility for nanoscience research (i.e., nanobiology, nanochemistry, nanomedicine, and nanophysics).  It is interesting to note that Prof Hell also will receive a 2014 Nobel Prize in recognition of his outstanding research.   Further information about the 2014 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience and these Laureates is available on the internet at:  http://www.kavliprize.org/prizes-and-laureates/prizes/2014-kavli-prize-laureates-nanoscience 2014 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience The 2014 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience was awarded jointly to 3 professors:  Brenda Milner, Ph.D. (Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Canada), John O’Keefe, Ph.D. (University College London, U.K.), and Marcus E. Raichle, Ph.D. (Washington University School of Medicine).  Their different research investigations revealed a cellular and networking basis for memory and cognition in the brain; their experimental findings resulted from the development and use of new technologies for brain research, and led to establishment of the modern field of ‘cognitive neuroscience’.  The resulting new knowledge about memory and cognition advances understanding of human diseases causing memory loss and dementia (e.g., Alzheimer ’s disease).  It is of special interest to note that Prof. O’Keefe also will receive a 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, in recognitionof his very significant brain research.  Further information about the 2014 Kavli Prize in Neiuroscience and these Laureates is available on the internet at:  http://www.kavliprize.org/prizes-and-laureates/prizes/2014-kavli-prize-laureates-neuroscience .  A discussion with all 3 of these 2014 Laureates, which will be readily understood and especially interesting for both non-scientists and professional scientists, is available on the internet at:  http://www.kavliprize.org/events-and-features/2014-kavli-prize-neuroscience-discussion-lauereates .   Concluding Remarks It is indeed very striking that several honorees for the different 2014 Kavli Prizes also have been selected for the 2014 Nobel Prizes (see: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/year/index.html?year=2014&images=yes ).  That convergence of judgment emphasizes that the choices of which scientists have made sufficiently important advances in research are made with consistency by the different selection committees for these 2 supreme science awards.  Since Fred Kavli elected to emphasize work in several of the hottest research areas in modern science, this convergence of awards can be expected to continue in the future.  There can be no doubt that all awardees selected for the 2014 awards of Kavli Prizes are very outstanding investigators who have made remarkable progress in scientific research.  Everyone in the world should appreciate and celebrate the hard work and research success of the 2014 Kavli Laureates. 


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The life and work of Prof. R. Chandrasekhar elicited many books.  The commendable volumes shown above both were edited by K. C. Wali.  Left: published by World Scientific Publishing (Singapore) in 2011.  Right: published by Imperial College Press (London) in 1997.  These and other volumes can be purchased at several booksellers on the internet.
The life and work of Prof. S. Chandrasekhar elicited many books. The commendable volumes shown above both were edited by K. C. Wali.  Left: published by World Scientific Publishing (Singapore) in 2011.  Right: published by Imperial College Press (London) in 1997. These and other books can be purchased at several booksellers on the internet.


In this series, I am recommending to you a few life stories about real scientists.  I prefer to let the scientists tell their own stories where possible.  Autobiographical accounts are interesting and entertaining for both non-scientists and other scientists.  My selections here mostly involve scientists I either know personally or at least know about.  If further materials like this are needed, they can be obtained readily on the internet or with input from librarians at public or university libraries, science teachers, and other scientists.

Part 2 in this series contained my recommendations for the story of a pioneering research scientist working in Cell Biology (see “Scientists Tell Us About Their Life and Work, Part 2”).  Part 3 presents fascinating accounts about a famous researcher working on Astrophysics, a branch of Physics and Astronomy that is very mystifying to almost everyone, including most other professional scientists.

Part 3 Recommendations:  ASTROPHYSICS

Prof. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910 – 1995) lived and researched on 3 continents, and was honored in 1983 with the Nobel Prize in Physics.  His life story is nothing less than utterly fantastic and inspiring.  Not many 18 year old youths either could or would work with mathematics of statistical mechanics (in physics and astronomy) during a ship voyage from India to England, but that is exactly what this young scientist did.  In his long academic career, Chandrasekhar was always a scholar’s scholar.  Most persons addressed him as “Chandra”.  He progressively studied different topics pertaining to the physics of stars and other subjects in astronomy, resulting in a series of much-admired and widely used books in physical science.  There is a story from his many years of research work at The University of Chicago that he had a personal rule that about every 7-10 years a scientist must change to work on a new research subject.   He accomplished this by first publishing a scholarly book completely summarizing and documenting his recently finished research project, and then throwing out the entire contents of several filing cabinets containing huge piles of reprints of published research reports and stacks of mathematical calculations needed for the previous project; only then did Chandra initiate his new research effort.  Few, if any other scientists have the extreme discipline and mental strength to follow such a dictum today!  Chandrasekhar’s research developed and moved forward until he became recognized as the world leader in the subscience of astrophysics.

I recommend here a descriptive obituary for general non-scientist readers, along with an excellent biographic article about Chandrasekhar’s life and influence on modern physical science.  These are followed by two brief recordings (click on “mp3” to start the audio) from a full transcript of a very extensive live interview in 1977 ( http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4551_1.html ).

Parker, E.N., 1995.  Obituary: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar.  Physics Today 48:106-108.  Available on the internet at:  http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/magazine/physicstoday/48/11/ptolsection?heading=OBITUARIES ; NOTE: after reaching this site for Obituaries, you must first click the title of this article and then click on the “download PDF” button).

Dyson, F., 2010.  Chandrasekhar’s role in 20th-century science.  Physics Today 63:44-48.  Available on the internet at:   http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/magazine/physicstoday/article/63/12/10.1063/1.3529001 .

Weart, S., & American Institute of Physics Center for History of Physics, 2014.  Interview with S. Chandrasekhar (on his hopes for becoming a scientist), 1977.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4551_1.html#excerpt .http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/magazine/physicstoday/article/63/12/10.1063/1.3529001

Weart, S., & American Institute of Physics Center for History of Physics, 2014.  Interview with S. Chandrasekhar (on the motives for his style of work), 1977.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4551_1.html#excerpt2 .




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