Tag Archives: basic and applied research

IT’S TIME FOR THE 2016 KAVLI PRIZE WEEK (SEPTEMBER 5 – 8)!

 

Notable quotations by FRED KAVLI about scientific research. Obtained from http:www.youtube.com/watch?v=ch6yMD4JGCo, and from http://www/kavliprize.org/about/fred-kavli.
Notable quotations by FRED KAVLI about scientific research. Obtained from
http:www.youtube.com/watch?v=ch6yMD4JGCo, and from http://www/kavliprize.org/about/fred-kavli.

 

The Kavli Prizes are awarded every 2 years to scientists whose research investigations have made seminal advances in science.  These Prizes were established by Fred Kavli (1927-2013), a physicist, inventor, and industrialist.  Kavli Prizes have the same level of high honor as the Nobel Prizes, but are restricted to 3 large areas of science (astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience).  For 2016, 9 pioneering scientists were announced as awardees in June, and next week the Kavli Prizes will be presented at a special ceremony in Oslo, Norway, during the Kavli Prize Week festivities.

Today’s dispatch briefly gives information about the newest Kavli Prize Laureates and their important research achievements.

Kavli Prize Week and the Kavli Foundation! 

The Kavli Prize website presents much information about the Kavli Prizes and Kavli Prize Week, including the selection of awardees, biographies and information about the newest and the previous Laureates, recordings of presentations by the Laureates, and, several other items for viewing by the general public (e.g., Popular Science Lectures).  This website is highly recommended and very worthy for you to explore independently!

The schedule of events for the 2016 Kavli Prize Week and abstracts for the 2016 Laureate Lectures by the new awardees are given in “The Kavli Prize Week 2016 – Program”The Kavli Foundation issues educational videos explaining the 3 areas of modern science involving the Kavli Prizes.

The 2016 Kavli Prize Laureates! 

The Kavli Prize in Astrophysics (see “2016 Prize in Astrophysics”) is shared between Ronald W. P. Drever (California Institute of Technology, United States), Kip S. Thorne (California Institute of Technology, United States), and Rainer Weiss (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States), for their recent direct detection of gravitational waves after many years of controversy about whether these features of cosmology actually existed (see “Brian Greene Explains the Discovery of Gravitational Waves”; also see “Rainer Weiss”).  By persisting in their studies when confronted by failures to detect any gravitational waves, they finally succeeded; their discovery translates theory into practice, and thereby creates a whole new branch of astronomy.

The Kavli Prize in Nanoscience (see “2016 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience: A discussion with Gerd Binnig and Christoph Gerber” ) is shared between Gerd Binnig (IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Switzerland), Christoph Gerber (University of Basel, Switzerland), and Calvin Quate (Stanford University, United States), for their invention and development of the atomic force microscope.  This new tool for research greatly advances imaging of the molecular and atomic structure of nonconducting surfaces, and permits directly measuring surface properties at the level of different atoms.  Research with atomic force microscopy now is widely used for nanoscience investigations of many different materials in all 3 branches of science; this instrument is wonderfully versatile, so unexpected new applications continue to develop (e.g., usage for medical diagnosis of cancer patients).  Atomic force microscopy took decades of dedicated work to be fully developed and explored.  Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer were awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics for their invention of the scanning tunneling microscope; that innovative new instrument necessarily preceded the invention and development of the atomic force microscope.

The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience (see “2016 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience: A discussion with Eve Marder, Michael Marzenich, and Carla Shatz” ) is shared between Eve Marder (Brandeis University, United States), Michael Marzenich (University of California at San Francisco, United States), and Carla Shatz (Stanford University, United States), for their research showing that the adult brain changes its architecture and functioning from experience and learning (i.e., brain remodeling and neuroplasticity).  This new concept is derived from study of several different model systems, and replaces the traditional view that the adult brain is static and can no longer change.  Their new model of the brain encourages development of new therapeutic approaches to treat adult human brain dysfunctions (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, senility, trauma, etc.).

General discussion! 

All the 2016 Kavli Prize Laureates exemplify the expectation that scientists should be creative individuals who are not afraid to explore new ideas, concepts, and approaches!  Their celebrated work has included both basic and applied research, theoretical and experimental studies, and, development of new research methods and instruments.  Their outstanding discoveries were the result of persistent dedication to research as a source for new knowledge; their use of collaborative investigations is prominent.  The 9 Laureates in 2016 are outstanding researchers, and all serve as good role models for young scientists just beginning their professional  careers.

Concluding remarks! 

The 2016 Kavli Prizes admirably fulfill the intention of the late Fred Kavli to honor excellence in research, to emphasize the importance of basic science, and to promote public education about scientific research.  All people should join in celebrating the new Kavli Prize Laureates!

 

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A VERY NEW IMMUNOTHERAPY FOR CANCER WINS THE 2015 LASKER-DEBAKEY CLINICAL MEDICAL RESEARCH AWARD! 

Cancer is "The Big C" for patients, doctors, and research scientists! (http://dr-monsrs.net)
Cancer definitely is “The Big C” for many patients, doctors, and researchers!   (http://dr-monsrs.net)

Many critics of spending billions of dollars on cancer research typically point to the fact that a general cure for neoplastic diseases had not been discovered (see:  “After Spending Billions, Why have Scientists Not Yet Found a Cure for Cancer?” ).  That now is no longer a convincing question, thanks to the basic and applied research of James P. Allison, PhD (University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, in Houston).  His breakthrough experiments and new ideas for anticancer therapy led to remissions and probable cures for some cancer patients who previously had no hope.  This article briefly describes Dr. Allison’s research on the functioning of specialized cells in the immune system, which led to discovery of a very new effective approach for therapeutic treatment of cancer.

The Lasker Awards. 

Each year, the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation [1] bestows 3 Lasker Awards: Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award, Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, and, Lasker-Bloomberg Public Service Award.  The 2015 Lasker Awards and Laureates all are nicely described on the Foundation website: http://www.laskerfoundation.org/media/index.htm .  Lasker Awards are considered to be most prestigious for medical science,  and the awardees often are considered to be likely to soon receive a Nobel Prize.

Dr. Allison has just won the very prestigious Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award for 2015 for his innovative new immunotherapy against cancer [2-4].  He previously has received numerous other honorary awards, including the 2014 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences [5] and the 2014 Szent-Györgyi Prize from the National Foundation for Cancer Research [6].

A new kind of anti-cancer immunotherapy is developed by Dr. Allison [2-6]! 

Many different immunology-based therapies against cancer have been investigated, but most have produced only limited clinical benefits.  The experimental treatment of cancer with antibodies that specifically bind to molecular components produced by cancer cells has not been successful.  Dr. Allison’s early research investigated the molecular mechanisms for how some cells of the immune system, T-cells, work in the cellular immune response to recognize and kill bacteria, viruses, and abnormal cells in the body. T-cell activities are nominally independent from antibody responses of the immune system.

Detailed research about T-cell surface receptors, binders, and cofactors led to Dr. Allison’s recognition that there are both positive on-signals and negative off-signals regulating T-cells.  One of the down-regulators is a receptor protein named, CTLA-4; upon binding of CTLA-4 to it’s targets, the activation and proliferation of T-cells are turned off.  This negative regulation is normal and is believed to prevent active T-cells from attacking the body’s own constituents (i.e., autoimmune diseases).

Most immunologists have long thought that the immune system should recognize, attack, and kill cancer cells.  Thus, it was a mystery why such does not happen.  This puzzle led Dr. Allison to ask whether CTLA-4 might be turning off a T-cell response against cancer cells.  He tested this hypothesis by developing antibodies that specifically bind CTLA-4 molecules, thereby inactivating their functional activities, including the down-regulation of T-cells.  When these antibodies were injected into laboratory mice bearing a transplantable tumor, there was a large proliferation of T-cells and strong killing of cancer cells inside the tumors!  Injecting control antibodies which bound other proteins had no effects on T-cells, so the tumor-bearing mice died.  Thus, these and other experimental results showed that stopping the normal down-regulation of T-cells released them to give a strong response against neoplastic cells.  The brakes on T-cells had been released by Dr. Allison, so their endogenous anti-cancer activities now went full speed ahead!  The go/no-go interaction between CTLA-4 and T-cells now is known as an immune checkpoint.

The next step in this ongoing research project involved translating the findings from basic research into applied clinical research with experimental treatment of human cancer patients.  After finally finding a pharmaceutical company willing to collaborate with production and testing of anti-CTLA-4 human antibodies, Dr. Allison began initial clinical trials of this experimental treatment of cancer patients who had not responded to any usual surgical, chemical, or radiation therapy.  In some cases the new immunotherapy worked quite well!  A standardized commercial version of human anti-CTLA-4 antibodies was approved for clinical use in 2011; over 30,000 cancer patients now have received the new immunotherapy.  This new cancer treatment is not just another promise of some hoped for future development; it is here today, and actually saves the life of some cancer patients.

Ongoing research in anti-cancer immunotherapy by Dr. Allison and other scientists [2-6]. 

The door now was opened to try this very new kind of anti-cancer therapy with different patients, different cancers, and different therapeutic protocols.  The effects of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies had dramatic results for some patients with malignant myeloma, a blood cell cancer that usually is fatal within one year.  The anti-CTLA-4 therapy put some, but not all, myeloma patients into long-term remission (i.e., over 14 years)!  New research, both by Dr. Allison and by other clinical research scientists, seeks to find: (1) why some malignant myeloma patients do not respond to this new therapy, (2) which additional cancers can be treated by this immunotherapy, (3) whether manipulating other proteins regulating T-cell activities will provide additional curative effects, (4) will combination treatments of cancers (e.g., immunotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy) give even better curative effects, and, (5) can manipulating other immune checkpoints have therapeutic effects against any non-cancer  diseases?

Special features of this very new kind of immunotherapy. 

Some distinctive very special features of this new kind of immunotherapy must be recognized by all readers!

(1)  The new curative therapy is targeted against the immune system, and not against cancer cells.

(2)  T-cells can effectively kill cancer cells; thus, an endogenous response is what kills the cancer cells.

(3)  Endogenous activities of T-cells against neoplastic cells normally are halted by activities of CTLA-4.

(4)  Right now, this new immunotherapy probably cures several types of cancer in some patients.

Concluding remarks. 

Dr. James Allison deserves immense credit for coming up with new ideas and new research findings about the immune system, and for asking new clinical questions.  He is an superb example of how PhD scientists investigating pure basic science in a laboratory can contribute much to applied clinical research.  Individual scientists having creativity, curiosity, enthusiasm, and the guts to think new thoughts, just like Dr. Allison, are the best hope for more important discoveries in all branches of scientific research.

Dr. Allison very clearly has made a wonderful contribution to modern clinical medicine.   All of us can hope that additional cancers finally will be conquered with the results from further research studies and innovative medical developments.  In addition, new approaches to immunotherapy might also benefit patients with some non-cancer diseases.

Recommended videos by and about Dr. James Allison! 

“James Allison’s Cancer Research Breakthrough”, 2014, is available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ySG2AwpSZmw&spfreload=10 .

“Dr. Jim Allison – 2014 Szent-Györgyi Prize”, 2014, is available on the internet at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGu2uzV9QOM .

“James P. Allison, Ph.D. on Targeting Immune Checkpoints in Cancer Therapy”, 2015, is available at:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CoBkuTOPJqg .

 

[1]  Lasker Foundation, 2015a.  Foundation overview.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.laskerfoundation.org/about/index.htm.

[2]  Lasker Foundation, 2015b.  Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award.  Award description.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.laskerfoundation.org/award/2015_c_description.htm .

[3]  Lasker Foundation, 2015c.  Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award.  Award presentation by Michael Bishop.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.laskerfoundation.org/awards/2015_c_presentation.htm .

[4]  University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Newsroom, 2015.  MD Anderson immunologist Jim Allison wins Lasker-DeBakey Award.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.mdanderson.org/newsroom/news-releases/2015/allison-wins-lasker-award.html .

[5]  University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Newsroom, 2013.  M.D. Anderson researcher Jim Allison wins Breakthrough Prize for his innovative cancer immunology research.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.mdanderson.org/newsroom/news-releases/2013/immunology-research.html .

[6]  National Foundation for Cancer Research, 2015.  The Szent-Györgyi Prize for progress in cancer research.  Available on the internet at: http://www.nfcr.org/prize .

 

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