The much disputed controversy about global warming features scientists, politicians, business leaders, and ordinary people arguing for or against it. Questions about global warming have shifted into a general debate about climate change. Clearly, this ongoing dispute is not yet even close to being resolved. This essay examines how and why this prolonged controversy is so very difficult to resolve despite the input of many professional scientists; the previous article in this series provided a general background for controversies involving scientists (see Part I at: http://dr-monsrs.net/2015/04/18/what-happens-when-scientists-disagree-part-i-background-to-controversies-involving-scientists/ ).
What is global warming?
In a nutshell, global warming is a worldwide increase in ambient temperature. This environmental parameter has been measured directly for recent periods or estimated indirectly from analysis of antarctic ice cores for hundreds and thousands of previous years. Global temperature has increased since the industrial revolution began (ca. 1870) and has risen more rapidly since 1970. It is known that elevating the amount of certain gases in the atmosphere (e.g., water, carbon dioxide, and methane) causes increased retention of heat; this is known as the “greenhouse effect”. It is postulated that the global temperature is rising largely due to increased levels of carbon dioxide coming from burning of the fossil fuels, coal and oil. Since further warming will cause melting of glaciers, increased ocean heights, changes in weather patterns, and other disruptive effects, the use of coal and oil must be decreased globally to stop any further rises in temperture. Climate change includes global warming, as well as global cooling and other large environmental changes in the modern world.
For those wanting more information about global warming and climate change there are very many materials available on the internet. I recommend several informative presentations for general readers: (1) “Causes of climate change” at: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/causes.html ), (2) “How are humans responsible for global warming?” at: http://www.edf.org/climate/human-activity-is-causing-global-warming ), and (3) “5 scientific reasons that global warming isn’t happening” at: http://townhall.com/columnists/johnhawkins/2014/02/18/5-scientific-reasons-that-global-warming-isnt-happening-n1796423/page/full ). An especially good gathering of arguments both for and against the official standard concept of global warming is available ( “Is human activity primarily responsible for global climate change?” at: http://climatechange.procon.org ), and will help readers to come to their own judgment.
The standard very official concept about global warming.
The standardized viewpoint about global warming accepts that the temperature worldwide is indeed rising. The primary cause of this temperature increase is human activities; people cause global warming by burning coal and oil to produce increased amounts of greenhouse gases, and also by paving and urbanization, generating carbon black microparticulates, deforestation, etc. Much emphasis in the standard concept of global warming is given to the production increased carbon dioxide. If no intervention is taken, this concept predicts more warming that will cause very alarming changes in ocean levels, weather patterns, and life as we know it.
What are the main issues in the global warming and climate change controversy?
Global warming and climate change involve several different assumptions, all of which are being questioned. (1) Is there really an increase in global temperature? (2) What are the main causes of this rise in global temperature? (3) Is there actually a recent large increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide? (4) What causes the increased carbon dioxide? For all these queries, the chief question that must be asked is, “What is the evidence?”
Starting at the very beginning, one must first ask what is the evidence that there really is any global warming? (i.e., are measured global temperatures actually increased in recent times. A positive answer leads to several other related questions. (1) How much warmer is this average figure? (2) How was surface temperature of the entire planet measured or estimated? (3) Are all countries and regions warmer, or are some simultaneously cooler? (4) Have similar variations in global temperature ever been observed previously? These questions involve science, and should be answered and debated by expert scientists (e.g., climatologists, meteorologists, oceanographers, atmospheric physicists, etc.).
Anyone seeking answers to questions about global warming must inquire what is the primary cause of such climate change? A big controversy involves the hypothesis that human activities cause this environmental change. There are several other possible causes, including natural weather cycles, large shifts in solar energy discharges, changes in Earth’s orientation and distance from the Sun, large increases in the global number of humans and animals producing atmospheric carbon dioxide through their normal respiration, etc. Good science demands that alternative explanations must be examined.
The controversy about climate change engages all the foregoing plus corresponding questions about global cooling. From our knowledge about forming and melting glaciers in the ice ages, we know that there have been very prominent changes in temperature during the distant past. The causes of these well-known changes still are not clear. Today, some portions of the globe have very increased temperatures and severe droughts. Shorter term increases or decreases in temperatures occur in response to natural changes in the environment, including activity of the Sun, humidity levels, patterns of ocean currents, rain cycles, seasonal effects, etc.
What have scientists said and done in this ongoing controversy?
In additional to gathering and analyzing data, scientists debate what conclusions are valid and ask lots of questions. In 1988, the United Nations convened a panel of expert climatologists to assess global warming and advise about what new policies are needed. That group, the United Nations International Panel on Climate Change (UNIPCC) constructed the official standard concept of global warming described above. An independent non-governmental panel of expert climatologists has been established more recently; this group, the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), has issued reports with conclusions about global warming that are very different from those of the UNIPCC. Many other scientists have been involved from the beginning, and continue to dispute almost everything. A survey of the literature by climate scientists (1991-2011) revealed that around 97% endorsed the consensus position that humans cause global warming (see J. Cook et al. 2013 Environmental Research Letters 8:024024 at: http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/8/2/024024 ). However, that figure directly contradicts the assertion that 31,000 other scientists, including many not working in climatology, do not see any conclusive evidence that the standard concept is valid ( http://ossfoundation.us/projects/environment/global-warming/myths/31000-scientists-say-no-convincing-evidence ). Clearly, in 2015 many scientists disagree about the official standard concept of global warming and climate change!
What is the present status of this ongoing dispute?
Almost everything in the controversial official version of global warming now is being questioned and debated vigorously. Expert scientists are arguing against other expert scientists. Many science organizations accept and support the official concept about global warming as being due to human activities producing increased levels of carbon dioxide. All government agencies monolithically endorse the official viewpoint and promote activating strong intervention by the government. Groups of environmentalists also support the official viewpoint.
On the other hand, some former supporters of the standard position now strongly deny the validity of global warming. These dissenters even include some members of the original expert panel (UNIPCC) that constructed the standard concept for global warming! Many individual scientists and science groups now are contrasting predictions made from the official viewpoint with recent measurements showing cooler temperatures and enlarging sizes of polar icecaps; thus, the recent data support global cooling, rather than global warming! Predictions from the official coincept do not match the reality.
Debates about this controversy involve politics, finances, emotions, and egos, as well as science. Questions and dissenting views by scientists are increasing despite documented efforts to suppress dissent against the standard concept [e.g., 1-5]. It is most disconcerting that this and other unethical behavior has been uncovered for some of the scientists strongly involved in this controversy [e.g., 1-5]; that distracts attention from the actual scientific issues being debated, and reduces trust by the public in all scientists.
Why is global warming and climate change so hard to establish or deny conclusively?
Several distinct reasons can be identified why expert scientists have not been able to resolve this ongoing controversy. First, the standard official concept of global warming increasingly seems to be invalid. It’s predictions about rising temperatures, melting of polar icecaps, and alarming changes in weather patterns do not match reality. It cannot explain large environmental changes that currently are observed. Solid evidence for a recent rise in temperatures is questionable or missing. One commentator recently has even dared to ask, “Is global warming a hoax?” . Second, the complexity of this controversy is enormous. In addition to science, it involves finances, politics, industries, and governments. Arguments involve much more than scientific facts and figures; egos, emotions, careers, repression of questions, and, predictions of alarming disasters are prominent. Third, the use of “global” in the questions being addressed is questionable because there are very many quite different regions and different human activities involved; many so-called global datapoints actually are averages or extrapolations. How exactly can the temperature in Nepal be meaningfully averaged with that of Greenland, New York City, Tunis, and Tahiti? Similarly, how can the different human activities within these 5 parts of our planet be averaged in a meaningful way? Fourth, this long dispute has been made more difficult for science to resolve by the uncovering of data manipulations and repressions of dissent [e.g., 1-5].
From the materials given above and all the pro/con data now available, I must conclude that this controversy is a quagmire, and that it is unlikely to be resolved. Both sides in this long dispute have developed very hard positions, and both are supported by some scientists, some research findings, and some group organizations; those conditions can only lead to a stalemate. Additionally, politics and commercial interests now have strong involvement in this dispute, and often overwhelm the input of science. Scientific research can produce new facts, figures, concepts, and ideas, but it cannot readily deal with a quagmire that is a jumble of emotionally and financially charged positions.
The fact that new laws and regulations already are being proposed in advance of any consensus agreement by scientists and the public suggests that some unannounced agenda is at work here. The primary purpose of trying to reduce carbon emissions and establish a global carbon tax appears to be installing greater regulation of industries, economies, and nations; reduction of carbon dioxide levels is only a phoney excuse for establishing increased governmental controls over everything and everyone.
 Jasper, W. F., 2012. “Climate science” in shambles: Real scientists battle UN agenda. Available on the internet at: http://www.thenewamerican.com/tech/environment/item/11998-%E2%80%9Cclimate-science%E2%80%9D-in-shambles-real-scientists-battle-un-agenda .
 Newman, A., 2013. Top scientists slam and ridicule UN IPCC report. Available on the internet at: http://www.thenewamerican.com/tech/environment/item/16643-top-scientists-slam-and-ridicule-un-ipcc-climate-report .
 Newman, A., 2014. U.S. agencies accused of fudging data to show global warming. Available on the internet at: http://www.thenewamerican.com/tech/environment/item/17500-u-s-agencies-accused-of-fudging-data-to-show-global-warming ).
 Booker, C., the Telegraph, 2015. The fiddling with temperature data is the biggest science scandal ever. Available on the internet at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/environment/globalwarming/11395516/The-fiddling-with-temperature-data-is-the-biggest-science-scandal-ever.html .
 Hiserodt, E. & Terrell, R., 2015. Is global warming a hoax? Available on the internet at: http://www.thenewamerican.com/tech/environment/item/19840-is-global-warming-a-hoax .
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