Tag Archives: glyphosate

MORE SCIENCE Q&A FROM YOU TO DR.M, AND FROM DR.M TO YOU! 

 

Asking questions, answering questions, and questioning answers are vital for education! (http://dr-monsrs.net)
Asking questions, answering questions, and questioning answers are vital for education! (http://dr-monsrs.net)

 

An earlier Q&A session with Dr.M drew a good response (see “Questions About Science From You to Me, and From Me to You!” ), so further interchange should be worthwhile for all visitors.

Dr.M, I’m no good at mathematics!  Can I read and learn about science without needing to use all the equations? 

The answer is “yes!”.  You can learn at a very basic level without needing any math.  Your knowledge then will be somewhat simplified, but that is okay.  As one example, look up a subject or question that interests you on any internet wikisite; you will receive simple descriptions, explanations, and figures, which will provide a basic level of understanding.  But, try to recognize that numbers and quantization are very necessary for doing science and research (e.g., consider the analogy of what would professional baseball be without batting averages and other statistical measures?).

Dr.M asks you: what do you know about how the internet operates?  How does your e-mail travel so quickly to another state or a different country?  How do viruses get into your computer? 

Although it is true that you can use the internet without knowing anything at all about computers, it will be much better if you understand at least the fundamentals.  It’s easy to use the internet to find out more about the internet!

Where can I learn about the big new Zika virus epidemic? 

Use any browser to search on the internet for “Zika virus epidemic” or “Zika virus research”, and you will receive many pages of sites with information.  If you feel that some background is needed, first look on a wiki for “virus” or “Zika virus”.  As a special treat, you can see a fascinating and shocking expose by J. Chatterjee about the old origin of this new epidemic at “What is the Zika Virus Epidemic Covering Up?” !

What do the Big Prizes in science matter to me, Dr.M? 

The several large Science Prizes provide a means for everyone to honor and learn about some really successful research scientists (see: “What Does It Take to Win The Big Prizes in  Science?” , and, “New Multimillion Megaprizes for Science, Part I” ).  Check out some video interviews with the winners on websites for the different prizes; you will see much about both their praiseworthy research work and  their individual personalities (i.e., yes, famous scientists are very interesting people!).

As a graduate student in science, I have decided that I do not want to work in a university!  What should I do to get a good science-related job in business/industry? 

You will need much more than learning about science and research, and you must take the lead in getting that info!  Take or just sit in on a beginning course for business or finance.  If possible, find someone who is now doing what you are aiming for, and ask if you can meet with them to ask a few questions about their job and career.  Some businesses offer short internships that will provide a taste of what working there would be like.  Spend some time thinking about the key difference between what you want to do, and what you would be willing  to do (i.e., could you work as an advertising staffer, computer maintainer, designer, manager, media consultant, salesperson, software writer, survey taker, telephone service agent, etc.)?

Dr.M, why do I as a taxpayer have to help pay for building giant new telescope facilities in Chile and Hawaii?  Those mean nothing to me! 

These gigantically expensive very special research facilities will yield new advanced knowledge about astronomy, astrophysics, and space science, that present telescopes cannot obtain.  These facilities are so very costly that they can be funded only by contributions from multiple nations.  The new research findings will help you only indirectly, by adding to understanding about our universe.  If you feel that your own tax money is being wasted, then you should realize that the portion you are giving to build these new telescope facilities is only a miniscule part of your tax payments; a much greater portion goes for wars and welfare ….. how do you like that?

Where can I find the very latest in new technology, Dr.M? 

I recently recommended several good websites covering this subject (see: “More Science and Research Websites Recommended for You!” ).

I just cannot understand why scientific research has not yet found a cure for either cancer or the common cold!  Please explain, Dr.M! 

You probably are ignorant that some of the many types of cancer now are being cured, thanks to modern research and clinical advances (see: “Progress for Treating and Curing Cancer!” , and, “A Very New Immunotherapy for Cancer Wins the 2015 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award!” ).  The common cold is difficult to cure or prevent because the causative viruses are constantly mutating and changing; thus, a moving target must be knocked out, but it is impossible to predict where it will be (i.e., what the next mutation might be) before it has changed!

I’m a Full Professor in a science department at a large university, and I am forced to retire next year.  How can I keep doing research and publishing, Dr.M? 

If you are still able to be funded with a research grant, then you might be able to either stay at your present location as a resident researcher, or transfer to another institution as a visiting researcher.  If you don’t have a grant, see if you can find a well-funded colleague at another institution, who will let you work without salary in their lab on their research projects.  For the latter possibility, recognize that you need to be flexible; you might even want to work alongside someone who formerly was your biggest competitor!

Dr.M asks you: how many different ways can glyphosate get into your body?  How much do you now contain? 

Glyphosate is increasingly recognized as being a dangerous poison (see:  “What Happens When Scientists Disagree?  Part III: Is Glyphosate Poisoning Us All?” ).  If a farmer uses the weed-killer, Roundup (Monsanto Corporation), with his corn crop, and the harvested corn later is fed to chickens, how much glyphosate is ingested by humans when the chicken eggs or meat are eaten?  If farmers spread Roundup by aerial spraying, how much glyphosate then is present within the local tap water used for drinking or cooking?  How much glyphosate is present inside you or other people today?  Dr.M says that much more research should be done to answer these worrisome questions!

 

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WHAT HAPPENS WHEN SCIENTISTS DISAGREE? PART IV: A CLOSER LOOK AT A SCIENTIST WHOSE RESEARCH CAUSES IMMENSE CONTROVERSY!

 

Controversies Involving Science Affect Everyone!    (http://dr-monsrs.net)
Controversies Involving Science Affect Everyone!   (http://dr-monsrs.net)

 

When scientists dispute something, attention generally is given to their research data and arguments, but not to the individual people.  As a followup to the materials about disputes between scientists presented in Part I, Part II, and Part III, this article examines an individual scientist who is courageously active in disagreeing with some other scientists about several public health issues.  Prof. Stephanie Seneff currently is best known for her proposed identification of a direct cause for the childhood malady, autism.  She vividly exemplifies how unusual new thoughts by a scientist and new approaches to scientific research can produce unexpected advances for science and society.  Following some introductory material, I will let Dr. Seneff speak for herself via some video recordings.

Who is Prof. Stephanie Seneff, and what does she investigate? 

Dr. Seneff is a very active product of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she is a Senior Research Scientist at the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory ( http://people.csail.mit.edu/seneff/ ).  Her collegiate degree in Biophysics was followed by a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (1985).  For her earlier investigations, she used computation to model human audition and to develop understanding about language in conversations between humans and computers.  More recently, Dr. Seneff has sought to identify correlations between human disease states, known biochemical and physiological pathways, and alterations produced by pathophysiology in diseases; this approach necessitates surveying extensive bodies of knowledge, but can lead to recognition of hidden interactions causing the known signs and symptoms of a disease.  She has fruitfully applied this research approach to heart disease, brain and nervous sytem pathology, and developmental disorders; her findings and proposals are new, provocative, and often run counter to commonly held and widely supported beliefs in medical science (e.g., she has suggested that statin drugs actually hurt heart disease patients, and that reduced cholesterol levels are bad). 

Prof. Seneff is a very controversial scientist.  She is curious, open minded, fascinated by details, and driven to find answers to research questions.  Current investigations center on her controversial conclusion that autism and certain other diseases are caused by the weed killer, glyphosate, from the popular agricultural herbicide, Roundup®.  Dr. Seneff’s conclusions and proposals immediately resulted in her being criticized by large commercial concerns; not only were her research results and conclusions questioned, which is perfectly good, but there also were very personal attacks.  She has never hesitated to vigorously push ahead with health-related research, in an effort to use her new scientific knowledge and insight to invite changes in current medical practices. 

To get to know Dr. Seneff and her work, I recommend the selected video presentations listed below (1-5).  These videos illustrate her background, controversial proposals, and commitment to science; they also give a glimpse into why curiosity and independent thinking are so highly important for research scientists.  Many other videos also are available on the internet, including some disagreeing with Dr. Seneff’s proposals. 

Concluding remarks. 

Prof. Stephanie Seneff is controversial because she is a very good scientific researcher!  If and when her proposal about what causes autism becomes proven and accepted, an explosion of remedial measures then will be taken immediately in order to prevent her startling prediction that by 2025 half of new births in the USA will have autism.  Even if she is mistaken, which I do not think will be the case, her controversial proposals serve to draw needed attention by researchers and government officials to critical health issues in the modern world. 

 

(1)  Inner Eye, 2014.  You must be nuts! – Dr. Stephanie Seneff interview – Part 1.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3x9zqTqSPFo

(2)  Biofilm, 2014.  How herbicides are killing us: Dr. Seneff, Part 1.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_3HyfoNa2Sw .

(3)  Next News Network, 2015.  MIT doctor links glyphosate to autism spike – Dr. Stephanie Seneff.  Available on the internet at:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6zOlGf_MWsg .

(4)  The Institute for Responsible Technology, 2015.  Gluten and GMOs, Jeffrey Smith interviews Dr. Stephanie Seneff.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVo51yLnohY .

(5)  Mercola, 2012.  Dr. Mercola interviews Dr. Stephanie Seneff on statins.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hbNSHPco0g .

 

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WHAT HAPPENS WHEN SCIENTISTS DISAGREE? PART III: IS GLYPHOSATE POISONING US ALL?

 

Controversies Involving Science Affect Everyone!    (http://dr-monsrs.net)
Controversies Involving Science Affect Everyone!   (http://dr-monsrs.net)

The small organic chemical, glyphosate, kills many broadleaf plants and is the chief ingredient of the very popular herbicide, Roundup®, produced by the Monsanto Corporation.  Glyphosate is used in agriculture to kill weeds and also for pre-harvesting applications to wheat.  Its usage on farms rose dramatically when Monsanto also developed Roundup® Ready crop seeds (see:  http://www.monsanto.com/products/pages/monsanto-agricultural-seeds.aspx ); these mutants of corn, soybeans, and other crops have resistance to higher levels of glyphosate that kill their nonresistant counterparts  Today, (1) Roundup® and strains of crops more tolerant to glyphosate are in very widespread use on farms all over the world, (2) normal pollination by airborne dispersal easily results in crossbreeding of resistant and non-resistant strains, (3) widespread usage of Roundup® in modern agriculture means that resistant strains automatically spread and take over any neighboring fields originally planted with only non-resistant strains, and, (4) the amount of glyphosate-containing agricultural products consumed by humans is substantial and is increasing.

The first article in this series provided a general background for controversies involving scientists (see: Part I ).  The second article discussed the ongoing controversy about global warming and climate change (see: Part II ).  This essay examines the ongoing controversy about whether glyphosate is benign or harmful to humans.  

How does glyphosate get inside humans?  

Glyphosate enters human bodies via several different routes: (1) ingestion of agricultural crop products containing glyphosate due to treatment with Roundup®, (2) drinking of water having small or large glyphosate contents, (3) breathing of atmospheric glyphosate microparticulates due to its widespread dispersal during agricultural applications, (4) ingestion of farm aninals which ate corn or other plant material treated with Roundup®, and, (5) ingestion of bovine milk, chicken eggs, and other animal products. 

Basically, everyone living on this planet now has glyphosate within their body.  Monsanto originally performed short-term research studies showing that glyphosate has very low toxic effects upon humans.  However, long-term research data for chronic exposures are missing.  Very high levels of glyphosate inside human food sources mostly are being ignored by regulatory agencies, many farmers, and most scientists.  The primary question for health researchers and clinical doctors is, “Does glyphosate have any toxic and pathological effects in humans?”.  This is a very straightforward research question and should be readily answered by scientific investigations. 

What does scientific research on glyphosate find about its safety? 

An extensive examination of published biochemical investigations recently showed that glyphosate could have quite a few undesired consequences upon humans and mammals, aquatic organisms, and bacteria [1].  The changes in metabolism caused by glyphosate affect cytochrome P450, enzymes, sulfate balance, amino-acid dynamics, and the human gut microbiome; these changes are alleged to be involved in such pathological states as Alzheimer’s disease, autism, breast cancer, developmental anomalies, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, and vitamin-D deficiency [1].  People already have been exposed to Roundup®  for many years, but its causation of disease states remains uncertain; plausable associations alone are not sufficient to establish causality.  Worrisome new research findings showing involvement of glyphosate in human pathology are disputed by Monsanto and some other scientists. 

A good published, but retracted, experimental study by Séralini et al [2] investigated chronic toxicity in rats exposed to glyphosate in various forms and dosages.  This professional research report aroused an amazing degree of controversy [3,4], resulting in empty disputes, personal attacks, and improper activities by the publishing journal [4].  Regretably, that dispute includes documented examples where scientists associated with Monsanto have restricted publication of research manuscripts showing that glyphosate can be quite harmful to the health of humans and animals; this has caused accusations that some science journals are not honest, use double standards for review of manuscripts, and have become subordinate to commerce [4].  

The United States Food and Drug Administration.

If Roundup® might be dangerous, why is it not being researched and regulated more?  The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is charged with monitoring and regulating public safety of all the many chemicals, foods, and materials used in our country ( http://www.fda.gov/Food/ ).  Toxicologists working at the FDA investigated glyphosate toxicity and established that anything below a certain level is not harmful to humans.  Toxicologists in other countries conducted similar evaluations to establish a safe level, but some of their approved values are smaller than that validated by the FDA.  Certain countries even ban use of glyphosate and genetically-modified crops resistant to glyphosate.  Nevertheless, millions of pounds of glyphosate now are used annually on farms around the globe [1]. 

Almost all Americans are totally reliant on the FDA to keep them safe from poisons and dangerous foods.  What does the FDA say about the glyphosate controversy?  The answer is “not much”, since their scientists apparently are not conducting all the needed measurements.  Why have these not been conducted?   Or, why were the needed assays indeed conducted, but the results are not released?  Is Monsanto influencing risk assessment by the FDA?  

Could human diseases be caused by glyphosate? 

Several different disease states now are postulated to be caused directly or indirectly by glyphosate [e.g., 1].  Where the incidence of these pathological states has risen in time, data for the amount and distribution of glyphosate in people runs a closely parallel course.  The health implications of the glyphosate controversy are very extensive; it has even been proposed that the problem associated with gluten in bread actually is a problem with its glyphosate content [1].  Clearly, much more research is badly needed; despite the increasing association of glyphosate with pathology, definitive causality of human diseases by this chemical has not yet been proven.  

Many glyphosate-containing weed-killers now are being marketed to farmers.  These contain different additives (e.g., adjuvants, detergents, surfactants) that enhance the toxic effects of glyphosate upon plants.   This enhancement is due to augmented absorption by agricultural plants, thereby giving humans eating them an increased dosage [5].  The amount of glyphosate in foods also is increased by the fact that many farmers now are adding additional Roundup® to their crops to deal with the new presence of glyphosate-resistant weeds.  Global governmental regulations of approved glyphosate levels have conveniently been raised by large amounts to handle this new situation [1].  Thus, despite the increasing evidence suggesting that glyphosate could have some bad effects upon human health, people eat more and more Roundup® each and every year [5]. 

Concluding discussion. 

The controversy about the alleged human toxicity of glyphosate and Roundup® already is more than a decade old.  Despite the suggested pathology, the amount of glyphosate eaten by humnans and accumulating inside them constantly increases [5].  It is alarming that the potential public health disaster of chronic glyphosate toxicity is not being researched much more vigorously by scientists. 

This ongoing controversy not only has scientists arguing with other scientists, but also has scientists disputing with a very large well-established commercial company.  The scientific issues regarding glyphosate toxicity are rather straightforward, but the needed research studies are not being conducted; it is suspected that these investigations are being hindered by Monsanto’s total focus on business profits.   

While this controversy drags on, what should people do?  Foods now are grown by some farmers without using exposure to Roundup® and are becoming more readily available in grocery stores.  As one researcher involved with the glyphosate controversy has advised, “Go organic!” [6]. 

 

[1]  Samsel, A., and Seneff, S., 2013.  Review.  Glyphosate’s suppression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome: Pathways to modern diseases.  Entropy  15:1416-1463. 

[2]  Séralini, G. E., Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Gress, S., Defarge, N., Melatesta, M., Hennequin, D., and de Vendômois, J. S., 2012.  Retracted.  Long term toxicity if a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize.  Food and Chemical Toxicology  50:4221-4231.

[3]  Séralini, G. E., Mesnage, R., Defarge, N., Gress, S., Hennequin, D., Clair, E., Malatesta, M., and de Vendômois, J. S., 2013.  Answers to critics: why there is a long term toxicity due to NK603 Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.  Food and Chemical Toxicology  53:476-483.

[4]  Robinson, C., and Latham, J., 2013.  The Goodman affair: Monsanto targets the heart of science.  Independent Science News, May 20, 2013.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.independentsciencenews.org/science-medical/the-goodman-affair-monsanto-targets-the-heart-of-science/ ).

[5]  Bohn, T., and Cuhra, M. 2014.  How “extreme levels” of Roundup in food became the industry norm.  Independent Science News, March 24, 2014.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.independentsciencenews.org/news/how-extreme-levels-of-roundup-in-food-became-the-industry-norm/ .

[6]  Seneff, S., 2014.  Slide #48 from presentation on glyphosate hosted by the MIT and Wellesley Alumni Associations, April 28, 2014.  Available on the internet at:  http://people.csail.mit.edu/seneff/California_glyphosate.pdf .

 

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