Modern scientific research each year costs many billions of dollars in the USA, and over a trillion dollars in the entire globe [1,2]! Research studies are supported by money from taxpayers, industry, and some dedicated group associations. Even a casual look at scientists working on laboratory experiments shows that their activities always have a high cost. Why exactly are science and research so very expensive?
There are many separate reasons why modern research always is costly. First is the cost of salaries. Research scientists deserve a good salary, due to their very long education and advanced training, specialized job skills, and previous lab experience in science. Doctoral scientists have spent at least 4 years working on their graduate thesis, and then usually spend another 1-5 years as a postdoctoral research associate (see recent article in the Basic Introductions category on “All About Postdocs, Part I: What are Postdocs, and What do they Do?”). When academic faculty jobs are scarce, some researchers spend 5-10 years, or even more, working as Postdocs, before they finally land a beginning position in academia or in an industrial laboratory. This means that most scientists really find their first career employment at around 30-40 years of age. Other lab personnel also have special training, and thus must also receive a good salary. All the payments for salaries of the Principal Investigator, Postdocs, research technicians, and graduate students add up to many dollars each year.
Second is the cost of special research supplies and materials. Laboratory experiments frequently involve usage of special supplies for the preparation and analysis of research samples. Even the water used to prepare simple buffers and solutions must first be processed to a very high purity level before it becomes suitable for research usage. Unusual chemical supplies are expensive because they must be custom-synthesized or specially isolated; only after final purity assays do these become suitable for use in research studies. Special materials in high purity are essential for many lab experiments and inevitably cost many dollars.
Third is the cost of special research equipment. Typical lab research at universities requires at least several pieces of expensive research instrumentation (e.g., amino-acid analyzers, automated analytical chromatography systems, facilities for cell culture, light and electron microscopes, mass spectrographs, polymerase chain reaction machines, temperature- and pressure-controlled reaction chambers, ultracentrifuges, etc.). Even after their purchase, there are further expenses for annual service contracts or repairs, adjunctive support facilities, and add-on accessories; in addition, salaries for research technicians trained to operate these special research instruments must be included here. Special research instrumentation always costs lots of money.
Fourth is the cost of time. Good research typically takes much time to be completed. Conducting research is always an exploration of the unknown, and never progresses in an automatic manner. Many non-scientists have heard about the so-called “scientific method for research”, wrongly leading them to view experiments as cut and dried exercises that always work as planned; nothing could be farther from the truth! Not all experiments work, and many of those that do work proceed in a different manner than expected. Acquiring one unanticipated result sometimes necessitates undertaking several new experiments in order to pin down the whys and wherefores of the earlier new data. All research results must be repeated at least once in order to have confidence that they are bonafide and statistically reliable. Modern experimental research studies typically take about 6 months to 2 years to reach the stage of being able to publish the results in a professional journal. The long time needed for conducting research work costs lots of money.
Fifth are the adjunctive costs of conducting research studies. Where certain samples are used for the research studies, a number of special adjunctive costs arise. Use of laboratory animals for experimental research is increasingly costly, due to the rules for animal care regulations and required veterinary oversight/support. For cases where clinical research is conducted in a hospital setting, there are considerable costs for associated patient care, clinical and research chemistry, professional support services, etc. For cases where clinical samples are researched outside hospitals, work in special bio-containment facilities with safety monitoring is required. These required extra costs are in addition to all the many usual research expenses.
Scientific research costs lots of money because all he many different experimental operations require use of special supplies and instruments, salaries for specially trained research workers, specified safety measures for certain specimens, specified measures for use and disposal of radioactive materials and toxic substances, and, many other adjunctive expenses. All these different costs are needed for a time period typically measured in years. As the saying goes, it all sure does add up!
I have tried to give enough details here so that non-scientists will readily see how modern research studies necessitate substantial total expenses in the USA. All of these perfectly usual costs for one individual scientist then must be multiplied by the number of research professionals, in order to arrive at the total national costs being spent annually on research. That is a huge figure, but sometimes one must add the large sums paid for those research projects involving Big Science (e.g., space probes, oceanographic surveys, clinical trials of new pharmacological agents, etc.), and for use of special research facilities at one of the national laboratories (e.g., Brookhaven National Laboratory, Sandia Laboratories, advanced photon source at the Argonne National Laboratory, etc.). The grand total costs for annual research expenses thus become a truly gigantic number of dollars.
This valid realization about the huge costs of doing scientific research in the USA sets the stage for a big follow-up question, asking whether the value obtained for science and society is worth this total cost? I will discuss this difficult question at a later time.
 Hourihan, M., for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2014. R&D in the FY 2014 omnibus: The big picture. Available on the internet at: http://www.aaas.org/news/rd-fy-2014-omnibus-big-picture .
 Battelle, and, R&D Magazine, 2013. 2014 global R&D funding forecast. Available on the internet at: http://www.battelle.org/docs/tpp/2014_global_rd_funding_forecast.pdf?sfvrsn=4 .
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