Some people will readily say that there could not possibly be too many scientists until all diseases are conquered, free energy is widely available, a surplus of food eliminates hunger worldwide, and new computer systems function to keep everyone constructively busy while robots do all the physical work! I disagree with that vision of utopia, since the presence of too many doctoral scientists right now in 2018 creates some important issues! The very foremost problem for research in academia (i.e., universities, medical schools, research institutes) is that the number of scientists now grossly exceeds the amount of dollars available to pay for their investigations. That resulting quagmire is designated as “the imbalance problem”!
My examination of the imbalance problem is divided into 3 parts. Part I provides background and identifies the several causes for there now being too many scientists researching in academia. Part II looks at the main consequences for science and society of this glut. Part III proposes how the number of scientists can be reduced to rectify this worsening problem.
How many scientists are working here?
The latest figures from the Congressional Research Service (CRS) show that there were a grand total of 6.9 million scientists and engineers employed at all levels in academia and industries during 2016 . The CRS data also indicates that the total number of scientists increased every year for 2012-2016 . The annual additions are due to both (1) new doctorates, and (2) new immigrant scientists coming to the US to work on research.
How much of an imbalance is there?
Are the many billions of dollars furnished by commercial businesses for industrial research, and by governmental granting agencies for research studies in academia, sufficient to support the costs for all worthy research proposals by professional scientists? The answer is “yes!” for industry, but is “no!” for academia since the largest federal agency funding research in academia, the National Institutes of Health, was able to award money to only about 19-20% of their applications for a research grant in FY2016 ! To increase the number of researchers being supported, some grants now provide only partial funding.
What do academic scientists do if they don’t have a research grant?
Faculty scientists losing research grant support are in a crisis situation, so all submit multiple applications to try to regain financial support. If unsuccessful, some switch into full-time teaching and/or administrative activities; they must forget about conducting studies after spending many years being educated and trained to do scientific research. Others continue researching but either shift their topical interest and join a large well-funded research group, or move into an industrial research job. A smaller number finds new employment not involving laboratory work. Senior unfunded scientists often take early retirement.
What causes the imbalance problem? What drives this situation to continue?
The cause of the imbalance problem is either too many scientists or too few dollars. The number of scientists increases every time a graduate student in science receives their doctorate, or a foreign doctoral scientist moves here and finds employment to conduct research. On the other hand, the number of dollars available for research support usually has only a small annual increase. Although every year there are anguished emotional cries for Congress to appropriate a much greater amount of money to support research, such common ideas for solving the imbalance problem are impractical and simply do not work.
There are 3 main stimuli driving the imbalance problem to be ongoing. (1) Modern universities have changed into businesses where profits are all important, so their science faculty now are businessmen and businesswomen. The chief function of faculty scientists now is to get research grants, not to advance scientific knowledge and teach science. The more science faculty that universities can hire, the more research grants they can gather, thus raising their business profits; for a greater understanding about science and money at modern universities, see “Three Money Cycles Support Scientific Research”.
(2) The current research grant system never has sufficient money to support all research projects proposed by faculty scientists. In addition, its policies and practices waste substantial funds for non-research purposes (i.e., payment for the indirect costs of conducting research), encourage wastage by research grant recipients (i.e., all dollars awarded must be spent during the grant period), and do not permit banking of any unspent funds (i.e., thereby discouraging being thrifty).
(3) The working atmosphere for professional researchers in academia has changed greatly so there now is less freedom to choose a research subject. Applied research is much favored over any basic research studies both by academic institutions and the federal granting agencies. Faculty scientists must recognize that their employer chiefly values the money coming in from their research grants, and not their research discoveries; this completely changes their professional identity.
Do scientists researching in industry face the same imbalance problem? No!
Since industrial research is supported internally from business profits, it is self-funded. This automatically avoids the imbalance problem prominently found in modern academia. If there is not enough money in industry to conduct a valuable new applied research study, then either it does not get started or some lower priority study at the same company gets cancelled so funds become available for the new investigation.
Concluding remarks for Part I!
Very many people in the US believe that the imbalance problem should be resolved simply by budgeting much more money for science (e.g., “Instead of spending billions on the military, let’s shift all those dollars into research!”). Due to the Malthusian growth in the number of scientists, the number of dollars needed to remedy the imbalance problem gets larger every year. Thus, if the imbalance problem was fully resolved by adding a gigantic pile of additional money, then the very next year this imbalance problem would reappear! Adding an enormous pile of dollars for support of scientific research in academia is likely to have bad effects on their research and scientists (see “Huge Additional Money for Research Will Be Bad for Universities and Their Science!” ).
The imbalance between the number of faculty scientists and the amount of money available to support their research studies unfortunately is an ongoing problem and has very undesired effects. These consequences will be explained and discussed in the following Part II of this series.
 Sargent, J.F., Jr., 2017. The U. S.Science and Research Workforce: Recent, Current, and Projected Employment, Wages, and Unemployment. Congressional Research Service. Available at: https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43061.pdf .
 NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT), 2017. NIH Funding Facts. Office of Extramural Research, National Institutes of Health. Available at https://report.nih.gov/fundingfacts/fundingfacts.aspx .
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