Tag Archives: polymerase chain reaction



Quote from the 1993 Nobel Prize Lecture in Chemistry by Kary Banks Mullis

Quote from the 1993 Nobel Prize Lecture in Chemistry by Kary Banks Mullis


In this series, I am recommending to you a few life stories about real scientists.  I prefer to let these scientists tell their own stories where possible.  Autobiographical accounts are interesting and entertaining for both non-scientists and other scientists.  My selections here mostly involve scientists I either know personally or at least know about.  If further materials like this are needed, they can be obtained readily on the internet or with input from librarians at public or university libraries, science teachers, and other scientists.  In the preceding segment of this series, the life story of a world-renowned research scientist working in Experimental Pathology & Cell Biology was recommended (see “Scientists Tell Us About Their Life and Work, Part 4”).  Part 5 presents the adventures of an energetic individualist whose creative scientific research enabled the molecular genetics revolution to take place in biology and medicine.

Part 5 Recommendations:  CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Kary Banks Mullis (1944 – present) is an extremely creative free-thinker who invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during his chemical research studies at an industrial research center.  This technological breakthrough enables DNA amplification (i.e., creation of myriad exact copies of some length of DNA), and now has been expanded into many new protocols and new instrumentation for molecular genetics, paternity testing, genomics, and personalized medicine.  The 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to him for this very influential research discovery.  Dr. Mullis recognized that his Nobel Prize provided the opportunity to be able to freely announce his reasoned viewpoints about controversial topics in science and in ordinary life; he always is a very outspoken scientist and a vibrant individual.  He has preferred to conduct research within industrial laboratories, and currently works as a Distinguished Researcher at the Children’s Hospital and Research Institute in Oakland, California.

A considerable number of very fascinating stories and personal information, as well as a very clear explanation of how the PCR operates, is available on the website of Dr. Mullis (http://www.karymullis.com ).  His childhood interest in chemistry and research is recorded as a most amusing video presentation (see “Sons of Sputnik: Kary Mullis at TEDxOrangeCoast”, available on the internet at:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iSVy1b-RyVM ).  The life story of Dr. Mullis epitomizes that many great researchers excel in personal determination, asking provocative questions, and thinking new thoughts (see my earlier article in the Scientists category on “Curiosity, Creativity, Inventiveness, and Individualism in Science”).

My first recommendation is his brief illustrated autobiography.  The second is a very personal account of how the notable discovery of PCR was made, and includes stories about his life as a student and a scientist.   The third is a video interview in 2005, 12 years after he became a Nobel Laureate; this includes some advice for young science students.  My fourth recommendation is his formal Nobel Prize lecture, presenting personal stories about his being a scientist, and including a vivid description of his “eureka moment” when he realized the significance of his amazing new research finding.

(1) Mullis, K.B., 2014.  Biography, and making rockets.  Available on the internet at:
http://www.karymullis.com/biography.shtml ).

(2) Mullis, K.B., 1993.  Autobiography, and addenda.  Available on the internet at:

(3) The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1993), 2005.  Interview with Kary B. Mullis – Media Player at Nobelprize.com.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=428 .

(4) Nobel Prize Lecture by K.B. Mullis, 1993.  Nobel Lecture: The polymerase chain reaction.  Available on the internet at:  http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1993/mullis-lecture.html .



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