The total science enterprise in the U.S. is humongous! (http://dr-monsrs.net)
Although many are aware that science and technology are extensive, few people realize just how very large they are. Everything from the number of scientists and engineers currently working, to the amount of money spent for research activities, are gigantic! This article brings the latest official figures into view so that all of us can grasp the present size of the current science enterprise in the United States (U.S.); of course, the corresponding figures for global science are even larger.
How many scientists and engineers work here? What do they work on?
For 2012, there were 6.2 million scientists and engineers employed in the U.S., accounting for 4.8% of the total workforce . 56% worked in occupations involving computers, 25% worked in engineering, and the remaining 19% were employed for many other categories of research (e.g., 2% worked in mathematical occupations) .
For which kind of employers do doctoral scientists work?
Science and Engineering Indicators 2016 (see: “National Science Foundation issues new report on status of science, engineering, and research!” ) documents that 70.1% of all employed doctoral scientists and engineers in 2013 worked in industries, and only 15.6% worked in academia/education; another 12.5% worked in governmental facilities .
How much money was spent by the federal government to support all the different research studies and activities in the U.S.?
A total of $132.5 billion was useds by the federal government to support all aspects and different activities for non-commercial research in Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 .
Which branches of research receive the most federal funding support?
For FY2014, research in life sciences, which includes biological, medical, and hospital studies, as well as agricultural investigations, received federal support of $30.7 billion . Research with engineering received $11.9 billion, research in all physical sciences received $6.5 billion, and, research in computer science and mathematics received $3.9 billion in FY2014 . In the same period, $65.0 billion was used to support all military research and development (R&D) activities by the Department of Defense .
How much money is spent by the government versus by industries to support research studies?
In FY2013, U.S. commercial industries spent a grand total of over $322.5 billion to support all R&D activities by their scientists and engineers ; for the same period, agencies and programs of the U.S. federal government spent over $132.5 billion to support all the different aspects of non-business R&D .
An extensive load of statistics for research support by the federal government is gathered and analyzed every year by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, and subsequently published by the National Science Foundation. These yearly data listings are invaluable and used widely to analyze changes, identify imbalances, and reveal needs for intervention.
Using just the figures cited above [1-5], some interesting and surprising conclusions can be made. (1) An enormous number of scientists and engineers work in the U.S. (2) Over half of all scientists and engineers in the U.S. now are employed to work with computer science. (3) The federal government spent $132.5 billion to support research studies in all the different branches of science during FY2014. (4) Almost half of the total support funds from the U.S. government in modern years is used for biomedical, hospital, and agricultural research studies. (5) Commercial concerns spend more for their R&D activities than the federal government expends to support non-commercial R&D. (6) The grand total funding support for all R&D from both industrial and governmental sources was almost $0.5 trillion in FY2013.
My grand conclusion is that the size of the total budget and all activities for research and development in the U.S. during any recent year is nothing less than humongous! Most funding to support this immense R&D effort comes from U.S. citizens via their tax payments to the federal government, and from the profits spent by large and small commercial businesses.
 Sargent, Jr., J.F., for the Congressional Research Service, 2014. The U.S. science and engineering workforce: recent, current, and projected employment, wages, and unemployment. Available on the internet at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43061.pdf .
 National Science Foundation, 2016. Table 4-17. In: Science and Engineering Indicators 2016. Available on the internet at: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2016/nsb20161/report .
 Yamaner, M., for the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, 2016a. TABLE 1. Federal obligations for research and development and R&D plant, by type of R&D: FYs 2012-16. Available on the internet at: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2016/nsf16311/ .
 Yamaner, M., for the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, 2016b. TABLE 4. Federal obligations for research, by broad field of science and engineering and agency in rank order: FY2014. Available on the internet at: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2016/nsf16311/ .
 Yamaner, M., for the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, 2016c. TABLE 2. Federal obligations for research, by agency and type of research in FY 2014, rank order: FYs .2012-2016. Available on the internet at: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2016/nsf16311/ .
 National Science Foundation, 2016. Table 4-7. U.S. business R&D. Funds spent for business R&D performed in the United States: 2008-2013. In: Science and Engineering Indicators 2016. Available on the internet at: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2016/nsb20161/report/chapter-4/u-s-business-r-d .